14th earliest precursor of the piano, “the pianoforte.”

14th century, Europe- Although unknown and disregarded by many, the dulcimer was the original creation and design with a keyboard, two hammers, and wires enclosed in an empty box. The dulcimer became a starting point for other variations of the piano, many of which were constructed later in history. 15th century, Europe- Although a specific date for the creation of the clavichord is unidentified, this instrument shared various similarities with the piano’s interior, specifically the mechanic’s role with the sound created. 15th century, Europe- The invention of the harpsichord, often referred as the            “earliest version” of the piano, was born. Equipped with a double keyboard, the harpsichord made a boost and served as an improvement from its previous versions, the psaltery. Although not as influential as the piano, the harpsichord served as an inspiration for Bartolomeo’s creation. 1709 in Padua, Italy-  “Bartolomeo di Francesco Cristofori” came upon the concept to construct the first model and earliest precursor of the piano, “the pianoforte.” 1777 in France- Thanks to the earliest design made by Sébastien Érad, the invention of the square piano took place, introducing a novel type and progression for the piano’s development. Later on, Johann Christoph Zumpe refined and developed the square piano’s attributes. 1739 in Gagliano, Italy- The original precursor to the upright piano is constructed, a creation envisioned by Domenico del Mela. Due to its perpendicular placement of strings, the upright piano has a taller appearance than the rest of its precursors. Later on, John Isaac Hawkins refined and developed the design of the instrument by lowering the string’s placement, which served as a model for the modern piano’s strings. The late 1800s- Grand pianos introduced a larger and grander version of the keyboard and contrary to the upright piano, the grand piano’s strings are placed horizontally.

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