6) long to execute the trade. This means

6) Please
provide the definition of “Distressed Cargo” where relevant example should be

cargo” is cargo of ships that failed to reach their destination in time or
in the expected condition, resulting in its deterioration and possible abandonment.
The most common occurrence of this is when a commodity is purchased by a buyer,
not paid for, then drops in value significantly while in transit. This usually
means that breaking the contract and paying the fines for doing so is better
than taking a loss on the cargo they are having shipped to them . Another
reason is If a ship has experienced bad weather or other issues that have
caused them to have to leave a port outside of their normally scheduled time
frame, they may not be able to unload cargo. If this happens, they must unload
the cargo at their next port and the cargo becomes distressed. Also When either
the buyer or the seller has waited too long to execute the trade. This means
that the time frame has expired and the cargo has not been paid for (or payment
has been refused)

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2) Please describe what IACS is and his role in shipping industry. Does
IMO have any relation with IACS?

International association of classification societies is a
non-governmental   organization that establish technical data and
requirements concerning environment protection and safety maritime and make
sure that all vessels  construction
complied with requirements. Most important IACS activities are the following

Ship classification
services  which  each classification is mandatory and can
affects shipbuilding, maintenance and repair.

Ensuring high standards. In
order to achieve that IACS introduced the Quality System Certification Scheme
that include management systems regarding ship classification

IACS has publications provided
guidelines to the member  suchs as the
Green book which incluse resolutions and recommendations and the Blue book
which include the Green Book and previous revisions and historical data .

With its
extensive knowledge of marine industry and fleet IACS holds a consultative
status with IMO and often participate in the capacity of an observer and as an
adviser to the IMO.


8) What is
the purpose of Load Line? Why is it necessary for ships to have Load
Lines?  What
are the different types of Load Lines?


Load line is a special mark positioned amidships on
both size of the vessels hull  and
indicates the draft of the ship and the legal limit which a ship may be loaded
for specific geographical areas and seasons of the year. The purpose of the
load line is to ensure that a ship has sufficient freeboard and thus sufficient
reserve buoyancy. It should also ensure adequate stability and avoid excessive
stress of the ships hull as a result of overloading. Temperature will affect
the load line level because warm water being less dense than cold water.  Also salinity will affect load line because
fresh water is less dense than seawater. 
There are 2 types of load line markings, the standard load line marking
which applied for all types of vessels and the Timber load line marking which
is applicable for vessels carrying timber cargo. All seagoing cargo ships need
to carry loading certificate in order to ensure minimum freeboard , to avoid vessels
overloaded with cargo, for sufficient reserve buoyancy and to max draught
allowed on ship


9) Please
describe the meaning of draft, air draft and freeboard. What is the
interference related to cargo carrying capacity?


The draft of the ship or boat is the distance between the surface of the
water and the lowest point of the vessel with the thickness  of the hull included . The measurement should
be made as close to vertical as possible. Draft is important to use in order to
determine the minimum depth of water that vessel can safely navigate and avoid
contact between underwater objects . Variations by water level changed , heat
navigating shallow waters or variation by trim are some of the factors that
draft can be affected .

Air draft is  the distance from  the surface of the water  to the highest  point of the vessel while vessel is fully
loaded. This is an important data that captain must inform to pilots, port
authorities, dock master and everyone else person in charge of a safe vessels passage
or ti operate in narrow areas. Many times air draft is subject to adjust with
the cargo and ballast ,enabling to obtain the most safely results but in must
be planned in advance in order to avoid waste time . This matter is critical
especially when the  vessels will  pass  under
bridges which is necessary a accurate calculation to avoid a disaster.

Freeboard is the distance from waterline to the upper deck level,
measured at the lowest point of sheer . This measurement is important when
operating a vessel on certain waterways, and more particularly on large lakes
and  salt water where big size waves are
possible . If ships freeboard is too low a big wave could wash over the ships
deck and causing  damage or potentially sink
in progress .


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