A the management of assets. From an asset

A
successful organization is one with the capability to manage all of their
assets to achieve the company’s key objectives and desired performance
measures, which in turn yield profitability.

The
Asset Management System adopted by a company shows its willingness to commit to
good practice, and demonstrate their sound stewardship of managing their assets
to support the organization’s functions by ensuring that the support is
sustainable financially.

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The
purpose of the Asset Management System is to make key decisions pertaining to
an asset lifecycle that range from its acquisition to its disposal. The process
involves careful planning by senior management from the organization, and this
plan has to be aligned throughout the different levels of function in the
organization.

With
the guidance from Asset Management System, a list of Asset Management Policy
and Plans are developed. These plans allow the organization to:

Document
and plan maintenance and work practices and proceduresDevelop
a long-term master plan that details the budget, funding and renewal plans
requiredDevelop
a sustainable financial and lifecycle planDevelop
a risk management plan and identify possible risks and its mitigationMeet
legislative requirements

The
Asset Management Plan included in this report looks at the maintenance of the
Train Traction Motor. A detailed coverage on the asset is covered in the Asset
Management Plan which entails the following:

Asset
Key ParametersLifecycle
StrategiesBudget
PlanningRisk
Mitigations

The
interdependencies and funding prioritisation is also covered on how should be
best managed for the Train Traction Motor.

A detailed and
comprehensive asset management structure will benefit the organization in the
foreseeable future and yields long term benefits as well.

The
ISO 55000 series of standard establishes a guide for the management of assets. From
an asset management perspective, policies and strategies are overarching
elements required to be determine by an organization in order to achieve an
effective asset management system (Poland, 2015). The right implementation approach
adopted in an organization will yield tangible performance benefits across the
lifecycle of all assets.

1.1      
Scope

In
this report, an analysis will be done for the chosen component – A Train
Traction Motor, whereby an in-depth coverage of the asset management framework,
sustainability, systems interdependencies and life-cycle thinking will be
covered.

1.2      
Methodology

The
methodology adopted in this analysis requires in-depth understanding on the
established ISO 55000 series of Asset Management Framework, with
cross-referencing to multiple sources pertaining to the methodologies currently
practised by industries.

1.3      
Assignment Structure

In
this assignment, the analysis will be done in a systematic format based on the
structure of the assignment.

The
assignment will list according to the ISO 55000 Asset Management Framework,
followed by discussing about the lifecycle and sustainability considerations of
the assets, system interdependencies, and lastly, about using risk-based
prioritization for the funding of maintenance activities.

 

2             
ISO 55000 – Asset Management
Framework

Assets,
such as Train Traction Motor, have to be maintained professionally by an
organization in order to maximise the performance benefits and to meet its
intended target and or objectives upon procurement of the asset.

All
assets, including Train Traction Motor, have a lifecycle. In this section, a
detailed explanatory of the life-cycle approach will be elaborated to explain
how the asset fit into an Asset Management Framework.  The process of optimizing the value of an
asset and making the appropriate decision throughout the life of the asset is
done with the guidance of asset management.

According
to ISO 55000, Asset Management is the coordinated activity of an organization
to realize value from assets (International Standard,
2014).
Asset management enables the realization of value by balancing financial costs,
managing the risk associated to the asset, and lastly, balance the quality of
performance from the asset.

Figure 1 – Asset Management
Framework (Hung, 2017)

The
method of implementing asset management system can be done with reference to
Figure 1 – Asset Management Framework. The framework comprises of the fundamental
parts of asset management in ‘Asset Management Policy’, ‘Asset Management
Strategy’, ‘Asset Management Objectives’ and ‘Asset Management Plan’. These
processes are done in a systematic flow, one after another, so that the plans
and objectives are ultimately aligned to the initial policy that is set out. Another
key process includes the understanding of the asset lifecycle as well. Through
the application of these processes, it maximises the value-for-money and
satisfaction of expectation from stakeholders.

2.1      
Asset
Management Policy

The
asset management policy is a statement set out by the senior management of the
organization whom intend to apply asset management to achieve the
organizational objectives. The policy will outline and define the framework for
setting the asset management strategies and objectives.

2.2      
Strategic
Asset Management Plan (SAMP)

The
strategic asset management plan provides the linkage between the organisational
objectives and the asset management objective. The SAMP should be established
according to the relevant functional levels, and are often done in the form of
performance targets set out for asset management activities, and the condition
of assets (Poland, 2015).

2.3      
Asset
Management Plan (AMP)

The
asset management plan details the approach that relates closely to the assets. The
intended objective of the plan is to bridge the current state or performance of
the assets to the required or desired future state of the asset. It contains
the asset management activities, plans for the operational and maintenance of
the asset, asset condition assessment, the renewal plans and resource planning.

The
planning stage involved during the establishment of the AMP is crucial, as it
involves the evaluation of the asset and their potential to meet service
delivery requirement – which is usually specified in the asset management
objectives (Keqa, 2016).

A
detailed explanation on the AMP of the chosen component – Train Traction Motor,
will be elaborated. The content of the AMP for the asset class of Traction
Motor should contain the following pointers:

2.3.1   Asset Key Parameters

In
this section of the AMP, the description, usage, number of assets and its
criticality should be documented.

2.3.2    Current
and Desired Performance

This
portion of the AMP will include the performance measures and the key
performance indicators of the traction motor.

2.3.3   Lifecycle Strategies

This
portion of the AMP includes plans through all phases of the asset lifecycle. Tools
that can be used in this stage includes the Lifecycle Cost Analysis.

2.3.4   Budget

In
this section of the AMP, it shall elaborate on the sources of funding, a budget
that has been allocated for the scope of AMP required and its future
requirements.

2.3.5   Risks Mitigation

For
the successful management of asset, an AMP should also identify and assessed
the risks involved, with the corresponding actions to mitigate the risks
involved.

In
particular to the Train Traction Motor, one of the foreseeable risks would be the
failure of the traction motor. Therefore, it is important to highlight the
contingency and redundancy plans in the AMP, to address such issues. The
mitigation of such risks, for consideration to be added into the AMP, are
listed below:

a)     
To
improve the competency of staff

b)     
To
procure spare traction motors

Through
the use of AMP, an organization is able to plan in accordance with the SAMP, to
weigh the type of maintenance activities required for the Traction Motor. In
such instance, the organization should decide to adopt either reactive
maintenance or predictive maintenance regime. The use of predictive maintenance
can be incorporated through remote condition monitoring of the performance of
the bearings within the Traction Motor.

Traction
motors are used to drive the wheelset of Electrical Multiple Unit (EMU). A key
part of the motors are the bearings within. Failure in the bearings will affect
the operational reliability of the train, and may even result in severe damage
to other components.

Apart
from the type of maintenance activities, frequency of scheduled maintenance should
also be documented and planned forth, based on the number of resources
available to attend to these scheduled maintenance.

A
decision should also be made on whether the asset require an overhaul upon
reaching a certain lifespan deliberated by the Original Equipment Manufacturer
(OEM) or by the organization.

 

 

2.4      
Implementation
of Asset Management Plan

Upon the careful planning and consideration
involved in the planning of the AMP, the implementation of the plan will follow
suit easily. The implementation of the AMP usually differ in terms of asset, as
each asset require different approaches, however, it will comply with the
overarching asset management policy.

In
the implementation phase, a criteria should be established for the required
processes. The delivery plans upon acquisition to the documentation of Quality
Procedures (QP) and Work Instruction (WI) should be planned accordingly. Through
these documentation, the implementation for specific assets are tailored accordingly.

In
particular to Train Traction Motor, the QP and WI should detail the task list
of maintenance activities, competency of staff, service reliability required of
the asset. On top of these, it should also specify the need for performance data
measures and trending which should encompass the following area in the
performance of the asset:

a)     
Safety
Performance of Traction Motor

b)     
Failure
Analysis

c)     
Availability
of Traction Motor

d)    
Mean
Time Between Failure of Traction Motor

e)     
Budget
Planning

The
implementation should also take into consideration those factors for future
improvement. These factors include addressing:

a)     
Non-conformities
to what is specified in the QP and WI

b)     
Continual
Improvement  through periodic review of
asset management plans

c)     
Preventive
actions or measures such as incorporating the use of condition monitoring

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

3             
Sustainability and Life Cycle
Considerations

The
framework for both asset management and sustainability are robust in its own
ways by addressing multiple objectives in each of their framework.

The
primary objective of asset management is to extend the life of an asset with
minimal lifecycle cost, while that of sustainability is to minimize the use of
natural resources, while allowing activities to continue as per usual.

The
integration of both sustainability and asset management will provide an even
robust framework, as reflected in Figure 2 below.

 

Figure 2 – Integration of
Sustainability and Asset Management

3.1      
Lifecycle
Considerations

All
assets have a lifecycle. There are multiple stages involved, however,
organizations tend to keep it simple and identify these four key stages of
asset lifecycle:

1)      Planning

2)      Acquisition

3)      Operation and Maintenance

4)      Disposal

In short, the phrase “from the cradle to the grave”
sum up the entire lifecycle of an asset. In the context of a traction motor, it
is also similar to all other assets by having to go through the same lifecycle
process. However, in this section, two key stages will be further discussed on
its importance compared to the rest in the lifecycle process. 

3.1.1   Planning

The planning phase is the first of the four stages
in the lifecycle process, and in my opinion, is the most important of all. All
the requirements has to be established in this stage, and these requirements
can be done with reference to the evaluation of existing traction motor. A
successful planning will ensure:

a)      Resources are available when required

b)      Sufficiency of asset to meet the availability target

c)      The funding of the acquisition of the traction motor

d)     The cost of the lifecycle (Whole Lifecycle Cost) is catered sufficiently

Figure 3 – Life Cycle Costing (The University of Vermont, 2015)

The acquisition cost as shown in Figure 3, usually
represents a tiny proportion of the total cost for owning the asset. A huge
chunk of the cost is not visible upon acquisition. Therefore, during the
planning stage, it is indeed crucial that these costs be anticipated or predicted
prior to its acquisition and planned for accordingly. The lack of such
anticipation during the preliminary planning phase will eventually result in a
higher expenditure spending, which may bust the budget that was originally
planned for.

The anticipation of such costs will also determine
the subsequent maintenance and operations support and activities.

3.1.2   Operation and Maintenance

This stage indicates the application and management
of the traction motor asset, with the aim of delivering its intended outcome according
to the specified performance measures. In contrast to the planning phase, the
operations and maintenance phase can be considered as the ‘execution’ phase of
the lifecycle process of the asset.

In my opinion, the traction motor shall deliver if operations
and maintenance approaches are clearly defined, with steps taken in a
systematic way to ensure that maintenance are carried out as per listed during
the planning phase.

The ineffective maintenance delivery of an asset
shall contribute to its premature failure. It is worth noting that these
failures maybe resulted from unknown failure modes. The failure of the traction
motor asset does have a consequence tagged to it in the form of affecting:

1)      The traction motor’s whole lifecycle costing

2)      The traction motor’s performance

3)      Safety of the rolling stock and its commuters

A way to better manage and ensure that maintenance
of the traction motor is optimised, tools and techniques are available to
ensure that the life of the asset can be sustained and, if possible, extended
beyond its intended lifespan. The tools and techniques are discussed in Figure 4
and Figure 5.

In my opinion, two of the most important tools that
should be used in conjunction with the maintenance are, ‘Fault Tree Analysis’,
and ‘Failure Mode, Effects and Critical Analysis’ (FMECA). With reference to
Figure 4, it can be seen that these two tools relate closely to the analysis of
failure of the traction motor.

With the use of both ‘Fault Tree Analysis’ and
FMECA, the failure modes of the train traction motor is looked at. These
failures include the P-F failures, usage-related failures, hidden failure modes
and failures that may not be related by maintenance. Furthermore, it provides
an in-depth analysis into the critical component within the traction motor.

Through the use of these tools, maintenance
strategies can be better established and in turn, it may sustain the asset or
even extend the life of the asset.

Figure 4 – Maintenance Tools and
Techniques (AMCL, 2017)

Figure 5 – Listing of Maintenance
Tools and Techniques (AMCL, 2017)

3.2      
Sustainability
Considerations

Over the past decades,
the landscape for mobility has been ever changing and increasing to cope with
the demands of commuters around the world. As a result of which, transportation
has become one of the leading sources of contribution to greenhouse gases.
There is a need to shift transportation and urban development to a more
sustainable path that will lower environmental costs and reduce reliance on
natural resources (Asian Development Bank, 2017).

Urban railway contribute
to sustainable development in the form of ‘Environmental’, ‘Social’ and ‘Economic’
factors. In my opinion, the two most important factors of sustainability are ‘Environmental’
and ‘Social’ factors.

The ‘Environmental’
factors involve the interaction of the railway with the natural environment.
This is one of the most direct interaction, and any considerations made has an
impact on the overall environment. The ‘Social’ factor involves the community
and society in totality. A sustained community support do have an impact on the
sustainability of the overall railway landscape.

Figure 6 – Factors influencing
sustainability (NetworkRail, 2013)

According to a report by
International Transport Forum, global transportation accounts for fifty percent
of the overall fuel consumption. Within the entire transportation landscape,
railways accounts for two percent of carbon emission. (International Transport Forum, 2010).

Based on the report, it
is worth noting that transportation has a huge impact on environmental factors,
and considerations should be made to ensure that transportation is sustainable.
Sustainable development is substantially more than “doing less harm” (NetworkRail, 2013). In terms of
railway, considerations in terms of environmental and social factors can be
made through:

a)     
Reducing
the overall carbon emission of rails

b)     
Be
energy efficient across rail infrastructures and operations

c)     
Improve
accessibility of stations and rail network

d)    
Procuring
sustainable materials

The corresponding
actions to such considerations can be done so by implementing:

a)     
Energy
Recovery Mechanism for Traction Motor – One of such ways is the use of
regenerative braking technology to convert mechanical energy into electrical
energy for the train traction motor.

b)     
Energy
Saving Technology – Energy will be conserved when not required across the
network of infrastructures in urban railway

c)     
Integration
of land use with rail transit to reduce carbon emissions from roads

d)    
Proper
disposal of assets upon end-of-life – Materials from the assets should be
recycled or disposed of properly

4             
Systems Interdependencies

Among the subsystems of
railway infrastructure, there are numerous interdependencies between these
systems in order for the whole railway system to function efficiently and
properly.

Based on the subsystem
of a train traction motor, the interdependency relationship is shown below:

Figure 7 – Interdependency
relationship of Subsystems

Based on figure 7, it
can be seen that these subsystems are interdependent:

a)     
The
train traction motor require power supply to function

b)     
The
staff working in the power plant require transportation to get to work

c)     
Power
plant require raw materials, such as oil and gas, as fuel supply to generate
electricity

d)    
Staff
working in the fuel supply plant require transportation to get to work

e)     
The
Power Plant and Fuel Supply is dependent on the Fire Station during an
emergency

f)      
During
an emergency, the staff working for these systems are dependent on the hospital

With reference to figure
7, it indeed shows that all the systems are in one way or another dependent on
each other. These interdependencies will then benefit the efficient functioning
of each subsystem holistically.

5             
Funding Prioritisation

All physical assets deteriorate
over time or usage, with their own characteristic pattern of deterioration. Most
good practice techniques uses risk or reliability studies to optimize the asset
interventions and prioritize their funding for maintenance. One important tool
that can be used with regards to risk-based prioritization is “Bow-Tie
Analysis”. “Bow-Tie Analysis” reduce the occurrence of undesirable events
through engineering means, with identified control as mitigations.

Figure 8 – Bow Tie Analysis (AMCL, 2017)

The
“Fault Tree Analysis” tool can be used to complement the bow-tie analysis, as
the tool involves tracing and analysing all branches of causal factors that
could contribute to the accident or undesired event.

Figure 9 – Fault Tree Analysis of
Train Traction Motor

In
Figure 9, the probability of occurrence that leads to the Train Traction Motor
to catch fire is calculated. The probability is calculated based on the number
of occurrences, over a period of years.

Through
the “Fault Tree Analysis” diagram, it can be seen that ‘Mechanical Failure’
contributes to 80% of the probability of occurrences, with ‘Bearing not
replaced periodically’ contributing to 50% of its probability of occurrence.

A worked example in the
format of a “Bow-Tie Analysis” has been illustrated based on the hazardous
event of “Train Traction Motor on Fire” below:

Figure 10 – Bow Tie Analysis
Illustration of a Train Traction Motor

Through the analysis
using the tools of “Fault Tree Analysis” and “Bow Tie Analysis”, it can be
concurred that funding for maintenance should be done through risk-based
prioritization. 

From the “Fault Tree
Analysis” in Figure 9, it can be seen that the funding should also correspond
to the highest probability causal factor in the diagram – which is the
‘Changing out of motor bearings periodically’. 

By applying such
techniques, it will definitely help in the management of assets more
effectively with all these risks being addressed.

 

6             
Conclusions

Asset management is a
long term approach that requires constant review to ensure that the value of an
asset can be realized. This approach has to be conducted in a systematic and
integrated manner which encompasses a whole lot of planning, checking and
execution in a top down approach in any organization.

The need to understand
and manage the risks and costs that are associated to each and every individual
asset is crucial, as assets are one of the key capabilities to define if an
organization is successful. A holistic asset management structure involves more
than just the asset and the organization, it requires staff to be competent as
well as having sufficient resources allocated to facilitate the asset
management system.

Every organization has
its own discipline, however, the approach to the management of assets remain
the same. It helps organization to increase their visibility on the assets
lifecycle, with forward planning on the asset with regards to its performance
measures and whole lifecycle considerations.

Organizations just have
to follow the same methodology and approach, and will eventually achieve its
key objectives. A successful asset management structure yields long term
benefits, and help to put an organizations investment into perspective.

Gaining ISO 55000
certifications will also boost the reputation of any organization and increase
its recognition. The act of good asset management shows the organization’s
willingness to commit to good practice, which in turn, help to attract
investors.

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