Basettty a distributed system. However, this will also

Basettty
Mallikarjuna, Assistant Professor

Dept of
CSE,GITAM Deemed to be University

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Hyderabad
Campus, Rudraram, Patancheru,

Sangareddy,
502329, India.

[email protected]

D Arun Kumar
Reddy

Research
Scholar, Bharathiar University

Coimbatore,
Tamil Nadu,

641 046,
India.

[email protected]

 

 

Abstract— Health information
management is implemented  in pervasive devices
has faced several challenges. In Android operating system  developing of 
health services is lot  of benefit
for the common people for their healthcare. Cloud computing  data retrieval and management interoperability
and availability of resources, security and privacy unified and ubiquitous
access. The aim of the proposed application is to managing healthcare
information system based on Cloud computing by using Android operating system. Cloud
Computing provides the facility to access shared resources and common
infrastructure in a ubiquitous and pervasive manner, offering services on
demand over the network to perform operations that meet changing needs in
mobile healthcare application. The proposed system has been implemented using
Amazon’s S3 cloud service, the security of the system is maintained the concept
of bring your own device (BYOD) and the mobile application is developed in
android operating system. Finally management of patient health records and
medical images generated by the DICOM format and JPEG2000 coding.

 

 

Keywords—Cloud
computing; Amazon’s S3; Health care management; DICOM format ; JPEG 2000;
bring your own device

                                                                                                                                                               
I.      Introduction

                Mobile
health care management focus towards e-health applications and medical
information anywhere and anytime 1. Mobile pervasive health care technologies
can help both patient and physician it support of a wide range of applications
and provide various services such as mobile telemedicine, patient monitoring,
location based tracking medical services, emergency response, personalized
monitoring and pervasive access to health information1. The information
systems in each hospital are different from each other 1. This system is used
to share all information from every hospital to design a uniform information
management system 1. But this will result in the invalidation of existing
systems and generate huge amounts of data migration, storage, maintenance,
update and other issues 1. Second approach is the use of distributed object
technology to develop a distributed system. However, this will also waste the
existing resources. In addition, it is difficult to extend and the maintenance
cost is high 1. Hence to design and built an interoperable information system
that can take full advantage of the existing resources.

                One
potential solution for addressing all aforementioned issues is the introduction
of Cloud computing concept in mobile healthcare systems. Cloud Computing
provides the facility to access shared resources and common infrastructure in a
ubiquitous and pervasive manner, offering services on demand over the network
to perform operations that meet changing needs in mobile healthcare
application. Cloud Computing is a model for enabling convenient, on-demand
network access to a shared group of configurable computing resources like
networks, servers, storage, applications, and services that can be rapidly
provisioned and released with minimal management effort or service provider
interaction. In this issue HealthKit concept has been developed in android
operating system which is a pervasive health care information management  system utilizing cloud computing.

                                                                                                                                                             
II.    Related Work

The 
mobile health care information management system has been developed in
IOS (iphone operating system) for the latest version iphone 8 plus. There is no
work in the literature utilizing cloud computing for developing pervasive health
care management system in Android operating system. Several studies
have made in patient-related information, in India worldwide how many people affecting with deferent diseases  Thus, the pervasive and ubiquitous access to
healthcare data is considered essential for the proper
diagnosis and treatment procedure1,2. Cloud Computing
is a
model for enabling convenient, on-demand network access
to a shared group of configurable computing resources
networks, servers, storage, applications, and services are provisioned as metered on demand service over the network  that can be rapidly provisioned and released with minimal
management effort or service provider interaction6,8.

The Cloud computing model promotes availability and is composed of five characteristics 6,8. First one is On-demand
self-service it automatically consumer can access the network storage,
server computing tine. Second one is Broad
Network access recourses smart phone can be access through the standard
network mechanism heterogeneous platforms 2. Third one is Resource Pooling in which multiple
consumers using multi-tenant model, with different physical and virtual
resources such as storage , processing, memory, network bandwidth, virtual
machines etc. dynamically assigned and reassigned to consumer demand 2,6.

                                                                                                                                      
III.   analysis of health diseases

                There is a need to motivate for developing mobile
healthcare application to bring into the common man. The different analysis
repots gathering from the In India eight states statistical report has analyzed
adjusted of their ages greater than or equal to twenty  has shown in Figure1. State wise report of
hypertension the age standardized prevalence of hypertension was 27.1 percent
in men and 26.4 percent in women 
observed with increasing of their ages 3. The Odisha having  50 to 54 percent prevalence of hypertension
among men  and was shown in figure and second
one is Kerala 37 to 45 percent and lowest 
state in Gujarat 7 to 11 percent 4 .

 

 

In Figure 2 shows the death rates
from chronic disease per every 100000, world health global orbal organization
release the statistical reports (WHO), The highest death rates was happened in
Russian Federation 4.

In Figure 3 shows the world
wide  totally 35 million people will die
in 2005 from various disease sucha as heart disease, stroke, cancer, and other
chronic diseases 5. In 20 percent of these deaths was happened in high income
countries, high income countries death rates are less compared to low income
countries and 80 percent death rates was happened in low income countries as
shown in Figure 455.

 

In Figure 4, the death rates from
these potentially preventable diseases are higher in low-income and
middle-income countries than in high-income countries, especially among adults
aged 30–69 years 5.

 

 
According Figure 2,3 and 4 high income people death rates are less
compared low income people. High income people using iPhone. The mobile
healthcare application is implemented in iPhone version 6plus – 8plus which is
IOS mobile operating system. Those who are using iPhone it help the people to
save time managing their  health care.
The iPhone users  locate physicians
nearer to them, manage their prescriptions or check their Health Savings Account
(HSA) balance, Health4Me is their go-to resource for everything related to
their health conditions. Hence we motivated to bring HealthKit application in
Android OS.

                                                                                                                                   
IV.   Proposed Appilation Overview

 

                The interoperable medical information system
designed can provide services based on the request from the user mobile. Cloud
computing service usually is in the platform frontend interface that
communicates directly with users and allows the management of the storage
content. Services in the system are loose coupled and can be used repeatedly,
which     effectively reduce the
complexity of system design and implement, it greatly improve the system
scalability and maintainability.

                It can help healthcare
organizations in addressing the technical issues in BYOD implementation through
a cost-effective way.  This is done through effective mobile device
solutions that utilize various tools in solving specific BYOD security
issues.  Moreover, installation of security patches, updating of mobile
security device software and interacting with other systems used for data
synchronization and storage are taken into consideration.  The Cloud Service client running on Android OS consists of
several modules. The Patient Health Record application acquires and displays
patient records stored into the cloud. The Medical Imaging module is responsible
for displaying medical images on the device has shown in Figure 5.

 

Figure 5: Smart devices are connected to
cloud computing                        architecture

                The  healthcare providers are undergoing a quick
mobility to implement security measures on their mobile devices  to comply
with strict government regulatory standards.  There is now an emerging
demand for companies that can provide specialized services on mobile device
management in healthcare.  The need for reliable mobile device security
software to monitor and enforce a real-time data security is
underway.   These mobile security devices enable simpler and quicker
access to data that results in better care of the patients.  With
healthcare professionals becoming less dependent on laptops and desktops, they
would be able to provide a more efficient care in any environment.  It is
cost effective.  It allows organizations to reduce the need for more
devices, thus bringing down costs.  Moreover, you can also reduce your
maintenance cost when there are only few devices to maintain.

                The Clinic module exposes two
interfaces, a Web Server and a Web Service, for the clinic staff, the patients
and the medical devices. The Web Server interface is intended for users who
prefer to use a Web browser to access the healthcare services. The Web Service
interface can be used by humans or devices to communicate with the mobile
healthcare system. The Web Server uses the Web Services to access the data. The
Clinic module provides support for routine activities of the physician. Patient
Module: Patients can link to the interoperable medical information system
through Internet for information querying and view, once they are authenticated
correctly by the system server. If more detailed data is needed, they can
propose to hospitals through the interoperable medical information system. Then
the second authentication takes place in the interface server of hospitals. Cloud
Module: Cloud computing has computational and sociological implications. In
computational terms cloud computing is described as a subset of grid computing
concerned with the use of special shared computing resources. For this reason
it is described as a hybrid model exploiting computer networks resources,
chiefly Internet, enhancing the features of the client/server scheme. From a
sociological standpoint on the other hand, by delocalizing hardware and
software resources cloud computing changes the way the user works as he/she has
to interact with the “clouds” on-line, instead of in the traditional
stand-alone mode.   Mobile User: The Cloud Service client running
on Android OS consists of several modules. The Patient Health Record
application acquires and displays patient records. The Medical Imaging module
is responsible for displaying medical images on the device. The communication
with the Cloud is performed through an implementation of Web Services that is
supported natively by Android OS. Server Side The web application will be
hosted on one of the department’s Windows servers and connecting to one of the
school Oracle Database server. The web server is listening on the web standard
port, port 80.  Client Side The system is
a web based application; clients are requiring using a Mobile. The computer
must have a network connection in order to be able to access the system.

    
                         As
per the Algorithm 1Cloud Computing is a model for enabling convenient,
on-demand network access to a shared group of configurable computing resources
like networks, servers, storage, applications, and services that can be rapidly
provisioned and released with minimal management effort or service provider
interaction.

       Cloud
Computing provides the facility to access shared resources and common infrastructure
in a ubiquitous and pervasive manner, offering services on demand over the
network to perform operations that meet changing needs in mobile healthcare
application.

 

                                                                                                                                           
V.    Experimental Evaluation

 

The experimental evaluation has been done from the system in practice
and performance have been conducted. The time is required for transmit data
from the Amazon S3 Cloud computing service. The existence results have been
involved the transmission of medical images. 
The following HealthKit application has been executed in the T mobile
running on Android OS 8.0. There are number of medical images having different
qualities OT is 24 bit JPEG 2000 losslesscolor, CT Uncompressed, CT JPEG 2000,
MR is JPEG lossless, PET JPEG 2000 Lossy and Ultrasound sequence of 10 images ,
JPEG 2000 Lossless  having file size and
time have been tested in Table 1.  There
are three networks have been used 3G, 4G networks and WLAN networks

 

Table1: Medical
image transmission using Amazon S3 Cloud Service with different network
types 

                The experimental
results shows the WLAN having less time transmit the data in terms of response
time in Amazon S3 Cloud service. The HealthKit application works with the BYOD          there are various ubiquitous like
tablets, mobile devices, smart phones, lap tops  has become a major concern for health care
organizations. The health care organizations focus on concept of BYOD. It satisfies
the patients and physician they use portable device in their workplace. In
smart phone android operating system implemented the the following HealthKit
applicatoin, it can automatically detect the Bluetooth medical devices and
gather data from them. The following Figures 6,7 and 8 are snapshots of the
HeathKit mobile application DICOM header extraction JPEG2000 progressive decoding
a CT scan resolutions.

 In Figure 6 
evaluation of health check up in dash board day wise, week wise, month
wise, year wise reports are displayed. the  services 
syncing them to health application without the user having to do
anything in a third-party app, making it easy for users to find health
information in a single place. If you have hospital looking for help In
figure7, future plan need to be take for health evaluation.  Now mobile user can
understand his health condition and where he would like to go, he can analyze
his health condition and plan to get health check up. The health kit can design
all parts of user mobility infrastructure, Figure 8 gives the present day
health record from wireless and networking to a plan for managing security risk
and performance.

                                                                                                                                                                
VI.   Conclusion

                In present day
health communication mechanisms are based largely on paper records and
prescriptions, are old-fashioned, inefficient, and unreliable. In this paper mobile healthcare system is designed
in Android OS in  Cloud computing environment. We
developed a distributed medical information system for use by physicians,
nurses, and other professionals, as well as by patients and medical devices
used to retrieving patient’s records. It is effective and timely communication
between patients, physicians, nurses, and other healthcare professionals is
vital to good healthcare.

                In
future there is a scope to design improving services by advanced  techniques on the mobile devices through
voice recognition. wide range of applications and services.

References

 

1     Maglogiannis I.,
Doukas C., Kormentzas G., Pliakas T., “WaveletBased Compression With ROI
Coding Support for Mobile Access to
DICOM Images Over Heterogeneous Radio Networks”, IEEE
Transactions on Information Technology in Biomedicine, vol.13, no.4,
pp.458-466, July 2009.

2     The Android mobile
OS by GoogleTM, http://www.android.com/

3     A. Laxmaiah, I.I.
Meshram etc. ” Socio-economic & demographic determinants of
hypertension & knowledge, practices & risk behaviour of tribals in
India”, Division of Community Studies, National Institute of Nutrition
(ICMR), Hyderabad, India, Indian J Med Res 141, May
2015, pp 697-708.

4     WHO Library cataloguing-in-Publication Data ” Global
status report on noncommunicable diseases 2010″, ISBN 978 92 4
156422 9.    

5     Kathleen
Strong, Colin Mathers etc. ” Preventing cronic deseeses: how many lives
can we serve? DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(05)67341-2″

6     George Reese, Cloud
Application Architectures: Building
Applications and Infrastructure in the Cloud, O’Reilly Media,
Paperback (April 17, 2009), ISBN: 0596156367

7     The SQLite Database
Engine, http://www.sqlite.org/.

8     Amazon.s AWS Success Case Studies,

http://aws.amazon.com/solutions/case-studiess

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