Fall 12.7, p < 0.02; T0 ? T2

Fall can be defined as one losing balance from higher to lower height. Falls is a health concern in elderly as it is on the rise. Falls are the greatest concern in older adults in the public. Participants were assessed via 8-Foot Up and Go and it shows improvement of F(2,173) = 8.92, p = 0.0; T0 ? T2 diff = 1.2 (1.0). Berg Balance Scores F(2,173) = 29.0, p < 0.0001; T0 ? T2 diff = 4.96 (0.72), chair stands F(2,171) = 10.17, p < 0.0001; T0 ? T2 diff = 3.1 (0.7), and arm curls F(2,171) = 12.7, p < 0.02; T0 ? T2 diff = 2.7 (0.6) also all improved significantly over time. (Der Ananian, Mitros & Buman, 2017). The World Health Organization reports that falls are the second leading cause of accidental death from injury worldwide and that prevention strategies should focus on education. The incidence and prevalence of fear of falling are significant among community-dwelling older adults and have the potential to impact function. Fall risk factors were assessed and the results for FRQ pre-test score (FRQ mean = 4.0, SD = 1.5) and FRQ post-test score (FRQ mean = 3.07, SD = 1.4). Scores pre-test for fear of falling (FES-I mean = 26.2, SD = 8.5) and post-test scores (FES-I mean = 24.6, SD = 8.1) (Harrison, 2017). Failure to follow fall prevention methods identified in a worksite plan is common in the United States and abroad, with reasons including lack of safety knowledge and competence among workers, lack of management support, and subcontractor lack of cooperation (Goh and Goh, 2016). Study done in 2016 by Evanoff et al., they hypothesized that fall prevention behaviours at residential worksites, and apprentice carpenters' knowledge, risk perceptions, and safety climate would improve following implementation of the revised apprenticeship training. Her team did a survey and the results increases significantly at 100-point scales for knowledge (7.7 points), crew safety behaviour (9.8 points), safety climate (6.4 points), and risk perceptions (6.4). Fall prevention program is needed be it in elderly or young adults. Falls rate are increasing especially in the elderly and it is becoming a problem in the world right now. Ageing population is catching up with the era right now and the need to understand and implement a fall prevention program in the community is important. With education on fall prevention, we can prevent further health issues towards the elderly or our loved one. Fall can happen to anyone, but it is more of a concern towards elderly as they are very fragile. Healthcare workers can contribute in the education of the elderly and conducting the program as it is relevant to nursing due to the ageing population. All these three articles focus on fall prevention program and checking the effectiveness post-program. All three articles were conducted via three different type of sampling, stratified sampling, cluster sampling and cross-sectional sampling. Two of the articles are focusing on older adults age 60 years old and above while the other article is focusing on young adults. Procedures According to the procedure done by Der Ananian, Mitros & Buman, 2007, data were collected via questionnaire of the participants sociodemographic characteristics and health history such as their age, gender, marital status, living alone or not. Anthropometric Measures are measures of their weight and height. They used Gulick tape measure to check for the waist circumference of the participants. Rapid Assessment of Physical Activity (RAPA) questionnaire focus on their physical activity such like if their activity is normal or if it is vigorous. Fall Efficacy Scale International (FES-I) is a questionnaire to check for their concern in falls. There are 16 items to be asked in this questionnaire. 8-Foot Up and Go assess on their dynamic balance such like they were asked to stand up from a seating position, walk 8 feet and seat back again at the initial place. Berg Balance Scale (BBS) test for their functional balance, chair stand and arm curls for their physical function. Lastly, Senior Fitness Test (Rikli and Jones, 2001) was to check for their muscular strength. Assessment done on 2017 by Harrison, Fall Risk Questionnaire (FRQ) to check for fall risk factors and Fall Efficacy Scale International (FES-I) questionnaire was to check for the elderly fear level in falling. FES-I has more focus on their questionnaire such that they assess for the functional tasks and social aspects of the participants. Surveys and focus groups conducted by Evanoff, et al., on 2016, focus on the fall prevention knowledge, reported worksite behaviours, risk perceptions, confidence ratings, safety climate and fall-safety practices. From all these three procedures, it has shown that assessment of questionnaires or surveys are critical collection before any conclusion. Co-operation from the participants in the procedures is essential. FES-I is a good questionnaire to be used to assess for the participants level of falling as it is more focus on the functional and social of the participants. Conclusion In conclusion, fall risk assessment is essential in care of nursing for the community, mainly the elderly. With the increasing rate in falls, procedures questionnaire like FES-I and FRQ is a good starter to collate history and strength of the elderly. Community-based, fall prevention programs are feasible and can be implemented by other nursing practitioner in community settings for older adults. Nurses who see older adults for the annual Medicare wellness visit can include referral to community-based, fall prevention programs as part of a health promotion plan (Harrison, 2017).