In basis for U.S. foreign policy and military

In February 1946, George Kennan,
a State Department official stated that Soviet leaders believed that the only
way to protect the Soviet Union was to destroy “rival” nations and their
influence over weaker nations. He advised that the best way to thwart Soviet
plans for was to contain Soviet influence through economic policy to those
places where it already existed and prevent its political expansion into new
areas. This strategy, known as the policy of containment, formed the basis for
U.S. foreign policy and military decision making for more than 30 years.

This ideology embraced the
“symbiotic relationship between the culture of the Cold War and the domestic
revival, leading to the re-emergence of a traditional family system. Domestic
containment, the elementary family and gender hierarchies played a role on the
turf in which moral victories against communism were fought. The
development of suburbs became connected with a life of conformity where
societal norms dictated marrying young and having children. Middle-class women
were expected to stay at home and nurture their children instead of finding
work outside the home.

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12) Discuss America’s concentration camps. Who was put there
and why?

The Japanese assault on Pearl Harbor
led to a torrent of racist assumptions about Japanese Americans and Japanese
immigrants residing in the United States that resulted in the relocation and
internment of about 120,000 individuals of Japanese descent, most of whom had
been born in the United States. On February 19, 1942, President Franklin
Roosevelt signed Executive Order 9066, providing the army authority to remove
individuals from “military areas” to thwart sabotage or espionage. The army
capitalized on this authority to relocate people of Japanese ancestry living
along the Pacific coast of Oregon, California, and Washington, as well as some
parts of Arizona to concentration camps in the American interior. Fears of
sabotage and racist sentiments led Roosevelt to act even though a study
appointment by him earlier demonstrated that there was little danger of
disloyalty on the part of Japanese in the west coast.  Ironically,
Japanese living in Hawaii were not sent to these concentration camps.

Those who were sent to the
concentration camps described that the experience was extremely traumatic with
families sometimes removed and people only allowed to bring a limited amount of
their sentimental belongings, abandoning the rest of their stuff. Despite the
adversities faced, the Japanese attempted to build communities within the camps
and live a normal life where adults actively participated in camp government
and worked at a diverse amount of jobs. Children partook in “regular”
activities such as attending school, playing sports against local teams, and
organizing Boy Scout units. These concentration camps also consisted of some
16,000 Germans, including some from Latin America. However, unlike the case
with Japanese Americans, they depicted only a minute percentage of the members
of these ethnic groups residing in the country. The majority of these
individuals were innocent of any transgressions, however some Germans were a
part of the Nazi party. No Japanese Americans in the concentrations camps were
found guilty of sabotage or espionage.

2) What was the 1906 Atlanta Race Riot? Why did it occur and
what was the lasting impact on what came to be known as the civil rights

The 1906 Atlanta Race Riot was a
major eruption of violence that occurred September, 22-24, 1906, where white
mobs murdered dozens of African Americans, injured numbers of others, and
caused considerable property damage. During this time, there was an emergence
of a black elite in Atlanta, adding to racial tension with many whites blaming
African American saloon-goers for increasing crime rates in the developing
city. Local newspaper reports of suspected attacks by African American men on
white women were the catalyst for the attacks. Some whites hated the prosperity
of industrious African American residents employed and managing their companies
in and near the business district, while competitions for work were also a
factor for the attacks.

Many people’s lives were forever
changed by this event, including Walter White and W.E.B. Du Bois. The riot
influenced Du Bois to help found the NAACP (National Association for the
Advancement of Colored People) in 1909 to get the best protection for African
Americans in the South as well as the North, promoting social justice and
protection of legal rights. White became secretary of the NAACP in 1929, and
within that role hired Thurgood Marshall to their legal staff. Marshall and
White formulated a legal strategy that led to Marshall’s argument before the
U.S. Supreme Court in the case of Brown v. Board of Education (1954).
The verdict declared segregation unconstitutional and aided in building the
foundation for the growth of the modern civil rights movement. When these
events are retraced from Brown v. Board of Education to Marshall, to
White, and to Du Bois and the founding of the NAACP, they point back to the
Atlanta Race Riot of 1906.The shocking event thrusted Du Bois, and directed
White into their leadership positions for the promotion for civil rights,
dramatically changing human rights in the United States.

3) Why were many Americans hesitant to become involved in
World War 1 and what changed this?

The United States did not join the Allies in their war against the Central
Powers until April 6, 1917, thirty-two months after the war began. Despite
President Woodrow Wilson’s push for Americans to remain neutral in thought and
deed, there were several factors at play that made this a difficult stance to
maintain. Economic factors, in particular, drove the U.S. position on the war
since the Allied nations of Europe heavily depended on American imports since
the beginning of the war and military blockades affected trade. In addition,
the ethnic separations among native-born Americans and new immigrants formed
national chaos as alliances were divided. German submarine warfare also made
neutrality hard to sustain because of their hostile targeting of British
liners, which evolved to include unrestricted warfare on American freighters.

It was a combination of these factors, attached
with the so-called Zimmerman telegram in February that finally got the U.S. to
get involved in the war. The telegram, which was captured by England, was from
the German foreign minister to the German ambassador to Mexico instructing
Mexico to join the war on the side of Germany if the U.S. entered the war. In
exchange, Germany promised to reclaim land previously lost to the U.S. in the
Mexican-American War. Then in March, German U-boats sank three American ships. With his
back against a wall, President Wilson presented himself before Congress on
April 2 to ask Congress for a declaration of war against Germany. Four days
later, the American were in the war that Wilson stated would “make the
world safe for democracy.”


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