India, retailing is the largest private industry and second largest employer
after agriculture. This sector contributes around 10 per cent of the GDP and
almost 7 per cent of employment. India has the highest retail outlet density in
the world with over 15 million retail outlets. Retail industry witnessed
significant development in the past decade evolving from small unorganized
family-owned retail formats to organized retailing. Liberalization of the
economy, rise in per capita income and growing consumerism have encouraged
larger business houses and manufactures to set up retail formats. Real estate conglomerates,
venture capitalists investing in retail infrastructure has only added to
booming retail in India. Many foreign retailers have also entered the market
through different routes such as wholesale cash-and-carry, local manufacturing,
franchising, test marketing and many more. The growth in organized retailing
and unorganized retailers is fast changing their business models and
implementing new technologies and modern accounting practices to face
competition every day.
Indian retail sector is characterized by the presence of a large number of
small unorganized retailers. However, in the past decade there has been
development of organized retailing, which has encouraged large private sector
player to invest in this sector. Many foreign players have also entered India
through different routes such as test marketing, franchising, wholesale
cash-and-carry operation. With high GDP growth, increased consumerism and
liberalization of the manufacturing sector, India is being portrayed as an
attractive destination for foreign direct investment (FDI) in retailing.
the impact of the 2008/2009 global financial crisis, the retail market in India
still remains strong, and consumer spending power continues to grow. The
shopping-mall format has been widely accepted by Chinese shoppers, although
this format is quite different from their traditional mode of shopping. Extant
literature has previously examined consumer behavior within the shopping mall
context in Western societies.
lot of research related to the Indian retail market has made significant
progress over the last decade. However much remains to be explored and further
research is needed to gain a greater understanding of this rapidly changing
market. For example, how the personality of the mall and fashion orientation
might impact Indian shoppers’ intent and behavior remains unaddressed. Hence,
this study to determine the relationship between the type of store/mall
personality and customer behavior is intended to generate meaningful
information and contribute important knowledge to the existing literature of
mall shopping in India at both theoretical and practical levels.
In today’s world, shopping is no longer an
exercise to obtain the preferred product(s) or service(s). Consumers frequently
expect multi-sensory, interactive, and holistic shopping experience that
entertains, stimulate, and emotionally affects them. Prior studies have shown
that measurement of customer satisfaction provides better means to understand
the needs of customers and to empower them by creating customer-centred
services. In India, department stores attract affluent consumers who seek
emotional gratification as consumption motive. Therefore, the actual happiness
they receive in-service consumptions directly influence their satisfaction. The
research (Mala Srivastava, Dimple Kaul (2014)) shows that customer experience
performs the role of mediator between the social interactions, convenience and
satisfaction. It demonstrates that customer experience is the key to customer
satisfaction. Henceforth, customer experience in retail context is extremely
relevant. In hypermarket retail stores where the retailers connect themselves to
the customers with the help of hedonic shopping motivations such as
entertainment, exploration, gratification, social, status, idea, and value
shopping which helps in generating customer satisfaction, loyalty and
assistance intentions in the customer. The study (Atulkar, S., & Kesari, B.
(2017)) shows that entertainment facilities are considered as a most important
competitive tool for creating satisfaction in the customers. In UAE, a similar
study (El-Adly, M. I., & Eid, R. (2016)) shows that value of mall has a
significant positive effect on both customer satisfaction and customer loyalty.
The above circumstances present retailers with opportunities to differentiate
themselves from competitors by designing retail environments that will create
memorable customer experiences.
aforementioned research has also indicated that customer purchasing decisions
are influenced by the following:
Perception: The customer’s
selection, organization and interpretation of information to form knowledge
reflects his/her perception.
Motivation: The customer’s
desire to meet his/her own needs reflects motivation. The learning out of
motivation is reflected on the customer’s behavior while meeting these desires.
Attitude: It is reflected
on customer’s steadily favorable or unfavorable assessments, feelings, or
inclinations towards an object or idea.
Beliefs: They are reflected
on customers’ thoughts about a product or service (Kotler & Armstrong,
The Factors of Consumer Purchasing Decision:
are many factors influencing customers on how consumers make any purchasing
decision. The purchasing decision process starts before the actual purchase and
continues long after.
was offered by retail which was the main motivating factor for purchases.
Convenient access to product information could facilitate and help shoppers’
making a purchases decision (Loshe & Spiller, 1999).
is another critical factor for a customer on retail shopping (Heim and Sinha,
2001). However, Li et al. (1999) argued that often retail shoppers were not
price-sensitive, cause of these consumers’ price comparisons among different
retailers on each product was time consuming and the price difference was very
is defined as the quality related to the products or services. Brand is often
referred as the seller’s reputation and consumer loyalty. Brands and features
increases as more information is obtained, knowledge of the available and
consumer awareness (Kotler & Armstrong, 1997).
was a critical successful factor for retail. Retail would fail if customer feels
lacking a great degree of confidence (Kesh et al., 2002). The primary reason
indicated of the most buyers who didn’t shop online cause of afraid to reveal
personal credit card information to retailers or over the internet (Rao, 2000).
Mall personality and shopping value:
research revealed that shopping activities can generate both hedonic and
utilitarian outcomes for consumers (Fischer and Arnold, 1990; Sherry 1990).
Utilitarian values often refer to the functional, instrumental, practical, and
task-related benefits, whereas hedonic values refer to ones that are aesthetic,
experiential, emotional, and pleasure-related (Batra and Ahtola 1990)
order to understand the various dynamics involved for customer relationships
with malls , customers themselves should be segregated into two buckets
As per the existing research of perceived
perception of tourists for malls in a tourist destination (1), the following
factors were considered critical:
Overall customer satisfaction
The correct prioritization of these factors should be ascertained
in order to understand the customer relationship to malls at a tourist
destination at any point of time to understand changing customer preferences
and shifting of loyalties.
on to the category of local consumers, with the advent of globalization as well
as modern technology , shopping malls today have become a shopping experience
(2) and it was found that shopping mall experience has a correlation with the
satisfaction and loyalty towards the brand of the mall. However, it was found
that even though there was no significant relationship between shopping complex
brand Personality and shopping complex loyalty, there was a relationship
between shopping complex satisfaction and shopping complex loyalty which led to
an increase of the shopping complex loyalty.
Management is imperative in all realms of the service industry. The quality of
FM service plays an important role in the overall service performance of shopping
mall (3). The empirically relationships
between overall perceived customer satisfaction and satisfaction came down to nine
FM service dimensions:
and maintenance of communal facilities
CSC: cleaning staff and cleanliness
WR: wash room
PMS: property management services
SG: security guard
SS: security services
MCA: management of common areas
OPMS – Overall property management
Mall attributes and customer satisfaction
satisfaction, defined as “the number of customers, or percentage of total
customers, whose reported experience with a firm, its products, or its services
(ratings) exceeds specified satisfaction goals.” gives a reference to
retailers to tailor a strategy for customers (Ferris et al., 2010; Tse and
Wilton, 1988; Oliver 1999). According to Kim, et al., (2004) customer
satisfaction is customer’s reaction to the state of satisfaction, and
customer’s judgment of satisfaction level. Wong et al., (2012) there is a
relationship between shopping mall attributes and customer satisfaction.
order to investigate the personality of the retail store, two different
Martineau (1958) categories of retail store attributes i.e. functional and
psychological which directly and indirectly to customer satisfaction.
category includes attributes like location, assortment of products and store
category represents the feelings generated by the functional elements of the
above research into mall choice by the customers gained more attention over
former attributes than latter. For supporting the review in the study of a
grocery store attributes, customer looked upon the price, product variety,
one-stop shopping, quality, location of the store, advertisement, general
appearance of the store and convenience (Doyle 1975). Manana,
(2009), suggested that Consumers evaluate the malls on the basis of products
and different features of mall e.g. location, employees and atmosphere. Retail
businesses are spending on getting and sustaining locations appropriate for
their products and consumers, as mall location is vital factor of retail business
(Hernandez and Bennison, 2000)
factors which are affecting customer in shopping and selecting the shopping
place, fall into five groups i.e. Features of price, accessibility,
environment, mall image, regarding the consumer buying behavior, convenience
and rewards (Wong et al., 2012; Dawar and Parker, 1994;) determined other
dimensions of mall selection behavior e.g. decoration, atmosphere, exterior and
cleanliness of mall (Newberry et al., 2003).
research done by Wang & Ha, (2011), nine features of mall make significant
the consumer to loyal towards shopping in mall that are mall atmosphere, after
sale service, brochures and pamphlets, communication, convenience, quality and
assortment of products promotions, expected behavior and rewards as discounts
etc. Isaksson & Suljanovic (2006) during the study of “different factors in
retail environment affect customer experience” in IKEA experience suggested
that the most apparent reasons for people choosing to shop is cost advantage
with their wide variety of products being relating cheap in comparison to
others retailer and product assortment is wide and constantly changing.
is another factor in IKEA which add something extra to their shopping. Furthermore
another study done by Kumar and Vikraman (2012) comparing organized and
unorganized retail outlets suggested that organized outlets provide price, self
service, visual merchandising and essay accessible layout to find out the
product. In selection of location, Reardon et al.