Industrialization transformed to a technological and industrial empire

Industrialization
in general terms means technological innovations which are an alternate way to
use a machine for human skills.  During 1871, a lot of progress happened
in the economy and it grew at a stagnant rate. The industries started
growing and the industrialization focused more on steel, machine tools, and
chemicals. Invention and rapid development in the areas of railways,
steamships, electric production and transportation took place. Some of the
reasons for the success of industrialization was its dependency on mass
production, cheap production, and efficient production. Moreover,
Industrialization proved to be beneficial for every single citizen in various
forms. By the 1870’s Europe was still under Britain as Britain was its
industrial leader, though other parts of European nations were rapidly closing
the gap. Continental Europe
includes all states excluding all the islands. Industrialization had
taken place between the time period of 1871 to 1914 in many parts of Europe
such as Germany, Belgium, and France. Growth in industrialization happened when there was a rise in
liberalism and when internal markets were created. After 1815, Continental
European nations had three advantages due to development in industrialization
are:

1.     Due to the strong independent
government, countries like France and Russia was able to promote economic
growth by using the power of the state and also they were able to catch up with
Britain in the long run.

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2.     British counterparts were used as an
idea for continental capitalists so that they would not suffer slow development
which was going in Britain and even that they did not have to undergo the trial
and error method.

3.     Continental European nations had been
easy due to the development of industrialization to survive and adapt to the
changing market.

Germany was
transformed to a technological and industrial empire and its per capita was
even higher than that of France during 1870 to 1917, and then it started to
grow rapidly. Because of the war between Prussia, France, and Austria, Germany
was not able to grow much before 1870. Moreover, by 1871 Germany had unified
and new confederation was formed. The economy had started to flourish during
that period of time and there was an increase in the population and even the
industrialization has started to grow after 1871. However, the rise in wages of
those employees in the industrial sector also occurred during that period
of time. There was a greater size of production in output which was due to the
Labor productivity which had increased by 1.5 percent each year. In addition,
with the beginning of the railway investment, the economic boom had begun with
the annual rate of growth being 4.6 percent in 1870 to 1874. During 1870
especially, the railway rate had completed 1500 kilometers when it had reached
to its highest peak in 1874 but after that, it decreased in the next year.
Until 1880, the net domestic product stayed at the same level and had increased
thereafter at an average rate of 2.5 percent. Moreover, the investment into the
industry between the time periods of 1870 to 1875 was 10.6 percent, while being
much higher during the year 1880’s being 41.4 percent. As there was a rise in
exports, the country had started to recover. From the year 1907 to 1913, German
exports were higher than that of French by 60 percent. Coal, sugar, potatoes,
and steel were the most important product of exports during 1890’s. As the
money supply had risen rapidly there was a decline in the interest rates. From 1887
to 1890 which is after seven years there was another boom in Germany and at
that time 948 stock companies were founded, some small crisis happened in the
next two years which had slowed down the process of industrial development, but
from 1892 to 1913, net domestic product went up to 3.3 percent. Hence, the
greatest economic prosperity took place between the time periods of 1896
to 1899, when 1129 new stock
companies were then founded.

Both the steel
production and iron production had risen between the time period of 1879 and
1882. At that period of time, the steel production then had doubled and iron
production had risen about 50%. When they had compared the annual average
output of steel of Germany to that of Britain, Germany was 75,000 tons and
Britain was 40,000 tons. We can say that Germany grew more rapidly than that of
Britain overall. Even in the electric power sector, Germany was more ahead of
Britain as in 1913, Germany was producing 8,000 million kilowatt hours which
means that 20% more energy than the sum of all three: Britain, France, and
Italy. One of the most important points noted at that period of time was even
the education sector. Even in the chemical industries where the education
system was the basis for the extension of these industries. All the technological innovation,
the improvements in the education system and the rapid rise in population to
produce more and to export and influence the market. The success in
industrialization had basically taken in the raw material sector like steel,
coal, heavy chemicals and engineering products.

French industry was also one of the most
important in the development of industrialization. In the first three-quarters
of the nineteenth century, France was the most industrialized country in Europe
but later the situation was changed and it had faced a period of “retardation”.
After 1870, economic development started to rise to a steady state. There was a
small increase in population, raw materials, Labor force. People over
there mainly focused on the quality without considering the costs of production
which was the main causes in the economic development. The population started
to increase slowly, the population had then increased by 10 percent and the average
rate of growth of output was that it was different from other countries during
1871 and 1911. Textiles, clothing and metal production until 1914 was the most
popular and dominant products of the industrial sector. After 1890, there
appeared a sign of prosperity and it increased in the production of almost 200
percent. The average rate of output then rose from 1.6 percent in 1870
to 1896 and 2.4 percent in 1896 to 1913.
The reason for not having a significant improvement in chemical industries was in
contrast with Germany as it had untrained researchers and lack of experienced
chemists.

In the nineteenth century, one of the chief
forces which had changed during that period of time was an industrial
revolution, an industrial revolution had led to western civilization in the
modern world. New American had ensured its growth and was also dominated by the
western world. During the industrial and scientific, revolution the human
beings were able to dominate the nature and even they were rationally
manipulating the environment for their own benefit. From using the environment
in their best possible way people used to create material prosperity and were
able to produce machines which they could have never imagined, which made their
work easier and getting their work done in a short period of time. In the
seventeenth century, the industrial revolution had proved to Europeans the
fundamental assumption of the scientific revolution.
Peoples over there they never thought that they would be able to produce
machines and at that period of time, they created new levels of material
prosperity (the material’s which helped them to earn money). Peoples who were then lost in the excitement
of the Industrial Revolution were the voices that had pointed to the
dehumanization of the workforce and the alienation from one’s work, one’s
associates, one’s self, and the natural world. Industrialization had eventually
helped the social world of Europe to transform. The transformation was the good
change that had happened. It had changed the way people used to work and think.

Social Impact of Industrial
Revolution

Class
and region both had varied due to social consequences. During the late 18th
and early 20th-century, people migrated from rural areas to urban
areas due to industrialization. Many of the rural workers had then moved to
work in the factories as they were not able to compete with the cheaper factory
production and also the production had shifted from the house to the large-scale
production in the factories.

The class structure had greatly impacted Industrialization and
capitalism. The old division of society was destroyed due to industrialization
in Europe. Workers who worked in new wage economy were sternly impacted due to
industrialization. Industrial workers were greatly affected as the price rose
high and the workers also started to get low wages. A huge transformation
occurred in factory production. Now, new rules and regulations were set by the
factory owners. Some of the rules were:

·      
Workers who were late to come to the factory were fined.

·      
They were not allowed to wear watches.

·      
They were not allowed to wander, chat or sing.

·      
As workers
lacked discipline they were introduced by Mechanisms of labor supervision.

 

During 1980’s there was an impact on the family members as well,
here we talk about both 18th century and 19th-century
family. 18th-century family did not distinguish between the
household and the one who lived in the house including widows, siblings, step
children, servants, tutors, etc. All the family members were engaged in
domestic production. Both bride and grooms made a financial contribution to the
family economy. Women’s were valued as the producers in the family economy. In the
19th century, the family economy was then replaced by family wage
economy. There was a growth of wage labor and there was a shift in production
from the household to the factories. The need for money, the need to pay for food and rent was now defined as the
family wage economy.

 

The working class family changed the position of
women and how they worked. The children and especially the daughters
were considered as an important economic resource for the working class
families. They considered that their economic burden had become less when
daughters married and left their home. In the new mechanized textile industry,
the children’s and even the daughters found employment. Families’ shifted to
the factory town so that they all could work over their together. Women’s and children’s
employment was greater than men in the mechanized textile industry, both the
women’s and children’s were paid well. Due to the availability of more jobs, it
helped them to save money. Daughters became independent (spending money, family
control, spheres of marriage) when they shifted to the cities, but in the
cities, wages were often low and employment was only seasonal.

Married women’s played multiple roles, women’s
managed the house, contributed wages to the family funds, and they even cared
for their children. Women’s worked for a full time until and unless they gave
birth to children. After childbirth they usually took non- mechanized garment
trades or they used to earn wages as laundresses, charwomen, etc. 

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