Life as an animal is stressing, depressing, and actually for some, very dangerous. From overpopulation of humans, having the effect of constant deforestation life on earth for animals is taking a horrible turn. But guess what? Human lives are affected just as much as the animals. We are killing off our resources faster and faster everyday. It wouldn’t take a detective to see that the world is changing. In some states winter is longer than it should be and in other’s the summer seems to last longer than it should. We are populating the world with an alarming rate of about 131,400,000 a year. That’s 360,000 a day. So think about this, you and about 359,999 people have the exact same birthday as you, are the exact same age. As you should already know for each person is the need for a home, and if there’s a need for a home there is a need of space, and if there is a need for space, then unfortunately deforestation is the first step. And resources ust be used. Killing and destroying animals, and the resources we need for without the trees we can’t breathe.Too often we pit one need against another as we use rivers and lakes to meet our needs. We grow food in ways that send pollution into our drinking water. We often manufacture products in ways that use more water than is necessary. We clear away forests without thinking about the erosion that will wash into our waters.We can and must make better choices or we will continue to spoil the very resources we need and cherish. Forests, grasslands, wetlands and floodplains help keep erosion and other pollution out of our water sources. They also slow rainwater down, helping stabilize water flow into rivers, lakes and groundwater. In fact, forests and wetlands provide drinking water for many of the world’s cities, but we’ve lost half of our wetlands since 1900 and we’re losing approximately 13 million hectares of forest each year – that’s equivalent to the size of 32 million football fields.There are companies like the Nature Conservancy that’s protecting rivers, lakes and natural lands in 30 countries and all 50 states. One exciting new solution is Water Funds that enable people living in cities to invest in protecting their water sources in nature. Farms and ranches produce the food, cotton and other products we need and want. But agriculture accounts for 70 percent of the water withdrawn from rivers, lakes and groundwater. And according to a study done by the EPA, agriculture is the leading source of impairment of freshwater sources in the US. When excess fertilizer washes into rivers and lakes it can cause algal blooms that lead to taste and odor problems in drinking water and, in some cases, can cause health problems. Nitrogen-laden waters can also damage fish and other animals and contributes to gulf hypoxia, or the “dead zone”, in the Gulf of Mexico. The Nature Conservancy is working with partners to help farmers access new practices and technologies that reduce water use and impacts on water sources. One great example is a partnership on the Flint River in Georgia, where farmers are saving millions of gallons of water a year.We fight for forests because life as we know it simply could not continue without them. Around 1.6 billion people worldwide rely on forests for food and economic means. Deforestation can have devastating impacts for the indigenous peoples and forest-dependent communities that have traditionally stewarded these lands. Beyond the borders of the forest, we all rely on forests for things like clean water, timber, medicines, and products we use every day. Similarly, forests are home to an incredible diversity of plant and animal life whose habits are under threat from deforestation. For instance, one in ten species on Earth known to humans is only found in the Amazon rainforest. Finally, the fight for forests is fundamentally tied to another critical global challenge: global warming. In fact, forest loss is actual a double-edged sword when it comes to our changing climate. Deforestation contributes as much as 20 percent of global greenhouse gas emissions every year, while intact forests can actually absorb carbon dioxide in the atmosphere.There are many people who is campaigning for a future that will allow our forests to thrive. We envision a world where our forests sustain local communities and economies, are filled with unique wildlife, and keep our air clean and pollution-free. Does that sound like a world you want to live in? Great! Learn more about the ways we’re fighting to protect forests around the world and how you can get involved. Deforestation and loss of natural habitats including wetlands source of abundant goods and services for society – for urban, industrial or agricultural use. This reduces natural flood control and destroys the habitats used by fish, waterbirds and many other species for breeding, feeding and migrating.Excessive water abstraction for agricultural irrigation, domestic consumption and urban/industrial use. This may involve pumping too much water from underground supplies, or long distance transfers of water from one basin to a neighbouring river basin. In both cases, the result has often been the same story of dried-up river beds and wetlands irreparable damage to wildlife, and failure to deliver overall economic benefits. Sadly, the ecological and economic value of freshwater systems damaged or destroyed by such ‘technical fixes’ are seldom taken properly into account.Pollution, caused by runoff from agricultural chemicals, poorly-managed and sometimes out-of-date industrial processes, and lack of adequate treatment for sewage and other urban waste. The results may include water that is unfit to drink, massive fish kills, and complete loss of underwater plants. Yet many effects of pollution are more insidious, only becoming clear after toxic substances have been building up in the food chain for many years.Long-term changes in rainfall, river flow and underground water supplies due to climate change. For example, some river basins are expected to experience increased flooding, whilst others may become progressively drier. These changes – often aggravated by short-sighted land-use planning – are affecting all sectors of human society, and will have far-reaching consequences for freshwater biodiversity. Most projections show that the rate and scale of these impacts are only set to grow.Forests have long been threatened by a variety of destructive agents. Today, the frequency, intensity and timing of fire events, hurricanes, droughts, ice storms and insect outbreaks are shifting as a result of human activities and global climate change, making forest ecosystems even more prone to damage. This issue of Unasylva examines the threats posed by a number of biotic and abiotic agents and some of the measures for overcoming them.Natural threats such as fire, insects and diseases are integral to forest dynamics. However, they can disrupt the flow of goods and services from forests by affecting tree growth and survival, water quality and yield, and biodiversity. Also considered are alien invasive species – pests, microorganisms or trees that are non-native to a particular ecosystem and whose introduction causes, or is likely to cause, economic or environmental harm. Many introduced tree species have high socio-economic and environmental value, but they can give cause for concern when insufficient consideration is given to the context of their use and management. Measures to protect forests from all threats must be an integral part of sustainable forest management.Wildfire is among the most dramatic threats to forests. Since fire does not respect national borders, the first article, by J.G. Goldammer, describes the role of international and regional collaborative efforts in reducing the negative impacts of fire on people and the environment. Next, V. Mosoti and A. Mekouar provide an overview of national legislation enacted by many countries to prevent or address forest fire situations more effectively.National and international efforts to develop mitigation strategies for wildfires also need to address human causes of fire. A key to this is ensuring the participation of local people in forest fire management planning. M. Jurvélius describes a community-based fire management approach that has been effective in reducing the number and spread of wildfires in southern Africa.Forest threats can be interlinked. In Central America, areas affected by recent bark beetle outbreaks, where dead trees augmented fuel loads, became the focus for extensive wildfires. R.F. Billings and co-authors explore the causes and impacts of the bark beetle outbreaks in five countries, also examining the role of fire – with an emphasis on new prospects for integrated pest management.When an insect outbreak reaches epidemic proportions, aerial application of biopesticides is sometimes the only resort to treat the infestation effectively. But high costs are an obstacle to large-scale treatment in developing countries and countries with economies in transition. G. Allard et al. describe how a technical cooperation intervention involving transfer of technologies and equipment has helped the Republic of Moldova cope with a catastrophic outbreak of defoliating moths. A shorter article by J. Novotný describes a participatory strategy involving small farmers, large private forest owners and forest enterprises in protection of spruce stands against insect pests and fungal diseases in Slovakia.Increasing movement of seeds and plants and international trade and travel have increased the risk of accidental introductions of forest pests. A short article by M. Keiran and E. Allen notes the particular risk associated with wood packaging materials, and the adoption of a global standard for treating these materials.Next, S.S. Lee illustrates the threat that diseases can pose to forest plantations: in Malaysia, the long-term success of Acacia mangium, once generally considered the country’s most promising forest plantation species, may be threatened by vulnerability to heart rot, root rot and phyllode rust.Prosopis species, introduced in parts of Africa to control desertification, have become controversial, as they have been perceived as invasive. Based on studies in the Niger and Yemen, D. Geesing, M. Al-Khawlani and M.L. Abba conclude that introduced Prosopis species can be invasive; yet with the required silvicultural inputs, and with their exploitation for fuelwood, fodder and food, they can provide benefits, including enhanced food security.It is not yet possible to conclude whether genetically modified organisms (GMOs) are a forest threat. M.H. El-Lakany points out that research and deployment of GMOs are not yet widespread in the forest sector, and little reliable information is available. With most of the world’s forest area likely to remain natural or semi-natural, the area planted with genetically modified forest trees is likely to remain relatively small. Yet, since this new tool may be used, regulatory frameworks for testing, monitoring and managing GMOs and protocols for evaluating the associated risks are essential.Finally, a short piece by D.A. Taylor addresses a particular human threat to forests: violent conflict. With their often rich natural resources and remoteness from centres of government, forests have frequently been the hub of disputes. When violence occurs in forest areas, the forest often, but not always, suffers negative consequences.FAO, in collaboration with its many partners, provides advice on prevention, legislation and long-term strategies to countries and supports regional collaboration in dealing with forest threats. It provides technical assistance and information networking. Systematic information is critical for dealing effectively with emerging threats to forest health and productivity and for reducing reliance on ad hoc responses.