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1) Name : PLYWOOD
2) Material : Sawdust, Wood crumb, Veneer
3) Size : 1220 x 2440 mm
4) Usage : Furniture, flooring, wall, Construction site, 
5) What is PLWWOD?
   PLYWOOD is thin plates of wood are glued so that the grain   
   directions. are perpendicular to each other.

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Properties and Characteristics of the Material:
 
 1) A large area plate can be obtained.
 – Typically, the wood should be thick with wood in order to obtain    
a wide plate. But such wood is difficult to obtain. However,   
plywood can make large quantities with a small amount of money.

 2) Less impact due to removal and dispersion of natural wood
 – Natural wood has a lot of blemishes, such as pine resin holes, rotten parts, and cracks, and these blemishes degrade strength, quality, and quality. However, since the plywood removes scratches in the manufacturing process or confirms its condition and makes it into a plate, its effect on the material is small.

 3) Shrinkage and expansion caused by cross-adhesion of plates
 – The physical properties of wood vary greatly depending on the cellular components that make up the wood, the fiber orientation, and there are three basic directions. 

     – Direction of tree trunk (fiber direction, axial direction)
     – From the center to the outward direction 
       (radial direction, pattern direction)
     – annual ring (Tangentialrichtung, Plattenrichtung)

  The effect of this direction is the shrinkage, expansion and strength properties of the wood. Thin plates are easy to crack, but there are few cracks in the plywood.

Usages of the Material:  

 1) Wall

Fig 4)                            Fig 5)

 2) Furniture  

Fig 6)                           Fig 7)

Examples of the usage in a flooring: 

Fig 10)                        Fig 11) 

The Complete Cycle:
 
 1) It starts with the tree
-Plywood begins as regionally sourced, sustainably-harvested 
Logs.

 2) Logyard
– These are Yellow Poplar logs for peeling in the company 
plywood core.

 3) Debarking
– Logs are loaded into the debarking station.

 4) Logyard Saw
– The logs are cut to just over 8 feet long.

 5) Recycled Waste
– Wood waste is captures for recycling or to be used as fuel.

 6) Off to the Lathe
– Trimmed logs are loaded onto a lift to the lathe.

 7) Peeling
– The log is turned against a sharp knife.

 8) Veneer Core
– This turns the log into a ribbon of wood in seconds.

 9) Glue Spreader
– Core veneer is fed into a glue roller.

 10) Assembly
– The layers of veneer are hand-stacked into a plywood sandwich.

 11) Hot Press
– Individual panels are sent to the press where heat and 
Pressure are applied.

 12) Trimming
– Panels will be trimmed to size.

13) Sanding
  – The panels are patched and sanded.
 
 14) Quality Control
– Every panel is inspected for defects.

 15) Packaging and Shipping
– Company units are packed and shipped off to stores.

Sustainability:

Plywood is an engineered wood product made of thin layers of wood glued together. Rotating the direction of wood grain in each layer gives plywood panels good strength. The environmental profile of plywood depends on that of its ingredients: wood and glue.  It is always better to choose for FSC certified and local wood types. Eco plywood is available, using glues with lower VOC and formaldehyde emissions.  Outdoor grade plywood should not be used indoor because both the glue and the wood have larger environmental footprints. Laminated wood was known already to the ancient Chinese and Egyptian, but only in the 1900 became to be mass produced.

Advantages and Disadvantages:

 1) Advantages:

– Since the plywood is made in the factory, mass production is possible and the thickness and strength of the plywood are constant. Therefore, it is widely used in construction sites where the standard must be constant.
– The plywood is a tree derived from nature, it can feel the natural texture of natural wood.
– Plywood is convenient to process.
– Excellent thermal conductivity.
– Since the main material of plywood is wood, walking feeling is good.

2) Disadvantages:

– When you combine sliced trees, you use glue, but after you use it, the pungent smell lasts for a long time. In addition, the adhesive contains formaldehyde, a hazardous substance.  
Because formaldehyde is a primary carcinogen and a hazardous substance. It is a point to worry when choosing plywood.
  – Plywood is weak in moisture.
 – Because it is a thin tree, it is vulnerable to external influences. Therefore, the floor is liable to be damaged. If it is damaged, it is difficult to recover.
 – Much care is needed to keep plywood flooring.

Conclusion:

 The purpose of this task is to understand the use of eco-friendly flooring materials. I first thought that all the wood flooring was the same tree. I was very interested in the process of studying the type and characteristics of the flooring, and then found that the name of the flooring was different depending on the type and pattern of the wood. Plywood is also true. I thought it was used because it was possible to make cheap price and mass production, but it was used for a long time because it was sustainable and environmentally friendly. Through this task, we learned about the advantages and disadvantages of wood, and we learned that different kinds of wood are used in different ways. As a person who is going to be an interior designer in the future, I think it is a meaningful task because it seems to have studied more closely.

Clay Tiles – Ceiling

Introduction:

The clay tile need the soil like pottery to make a shape, then it is put in the oven to be baked. It is then divided according to the use. The basic tile is round and flat but can be shaped int squares or rectangles. Once the two tiles are overlaid, a curve is made. After putting two tiles on top of each other, the ends of them are closed with a block tile.

Properties and Characteristics of the Material:

Clay tile is the go to choice for roofing. It has a number of benefits as both an aesthetic and structural component of the building. Its characteristics include long durability, temperature control, energy efficiency, sustainability and reduced cost repairs. Created using natural materials and substances from the earth, clay tile is manufactured in a number of forms and colors.

Sustainability + Advantages & Disadvantages: 

Clay tiles are sustainable as it is made from natural substances however, the production is not sustainable as it requires a great amount of energy input. In order to produce tiles, manufacturers would have to go through the same unsustainable process to produce a material that is sustainable. If manufacturers were able to reduce the energy put into manufacturing clay tiles, they could be used more frequently. 

Advantages:

Clay tiles are durable – they can last up to 60 years if maintained carefully. 
They can be reused.
They can also be recycled.
They promote biodiversity as they are sustainable.

Disadvantages:

They’re expensive.
The process of clay-making is unsustainable.
They’re vulnerable – they can be broken if not properly handled or maintained. 
They are also heavy.

Conclusion:

The clay tile is made by burning clay in ovens. Most of the clay tiles are used for roofing with a large slope. In classical Asian architecture, clay tiles are often used in the building part of the building. Clay tile biggest drawback is heavy, brittle, easily broken. Thus, the surface viscosity of glazed tile, color appearance, and high durability, but the price is expensive and it had heavy weight, it should be used in only a few monuments. The raw materials of clay tiles is clay so, the sustainability of clay tiles is not good.

Rattan – Furniture By YangSihui (Ivy)

Introduction of the Material:

Rattan is a natural material used for rattan furniture. In general, it is a type of palm, which develops as a vine in the jungles. The vines of the rattan grow up the tropical trees, starting at the bottom of the rainforest, and can reach a length of up to hundreds of meters long. This is not something you can probably grow yourself due to the need of a tropical climate, the palm itself is vine like and is characterized by its solid stem.

The origin of rattan is in the tropics. It is distributed in Africa, Asia and Oceania. Generally speaking, the different parts of the rattan can be used to make furniture after processing. The original vine in the acquisition, can be woven by rattan peel, while the inner part can be used as the backbone of rattan furniture. Because of the weight of the rattan is very light, and very durable, high plasticity, the furniture made is favored by consumers.

Properties and Characteristics of the Material:

Rattan is a vine growing in a tropical rainforest. Its greatest characteristic is light and flexible, so it can weave various forms of furniture. The biggest feature is the rattan can absorb moisture and heat and has a very strong permeability (the use of rattan furniture in the summer is very cool), rattan furniture also has mothproof effect, not easy to deformation and cracking and other physical properties are equivalent to or exceeding high-grade hardwood.

Usages and Maintenance of the Material:

1? When using and storing rattan furniture, do not touch or close to the source of fire. Don’t talk about rattan furniture being exposed to the sun for a long time, otherwise it will fade, dry, deform, bend, crack, loose and disconnect.
2?The rattan furniture surface hidden in the place where the ashes are more clean when available cleaners suck again or with a soft brush from the inside to the outside of the dust off, and then wipe it with a damp cloth, finally wipe dry with a soft cloth.
3? After rattan furniture has been used for a period, it can wipe off the rattan with brackish water, it can not only clean up the dirt, but also make it flexible and durable. It also has some functions of anti-brittle and anti-moth.

Examples of the Usage in a Project (Pictures):

 

Figure 17 

Figure 18

5. The Complete Cycle:

Technology of rattan furniture can be divided into two categories: one is the production process of pure rattan furniture, there is a production process of rattan furniture rattan mixture. Production process of rattan furniture can be divided into eight parts, they are: the choice of raw material, raw material grinding, raw materials processing, polishing, assembling, weaving, semi-finished grinding, fuel injection.

6. Sustainability:

On the one hand, the growth ability and vigorous of rattan, therefore, it may damage other plants growth for the environment. At that time, we use rattan to make furniture for the environment is good. The cane can realize biodegradation, so the use of rattan is conducive to environmental protection, will not cause pollution to the environment. But on the other hand, excessive deforestation, due to excessive demand, leads to the destruction of forest ecology, which is not a sustainable development for the environment. For example, in the late twentieth century, a lot of rattan furniture was introduced to European and American countries, which led to the destruction of the ecological environment of the exporting countries. So at that time, Indonesia had issued a ban on exporting vines to suppliers. But rattan is a very magical plant, and its growth ability is strong, so people start planting vines. The growth of vine is not only beneficial to the ecological environment of rainforests, but also to the whole atmosphere.

7. Advantages and Disadvantages:

Advantages:
1? Rattan furniture has strong permeability, feel fresh, pristine natural rattan helps to soothe the angry summer bedroom, if as much as possible the use of rattan furniture, the summer will be beneficial to sleep.
2? Rattan furniture to after cooking, bleaching, drying, mildew, sterilization and other processes, in the original process is durable, a choice of twenty years or even thirty years can benefit. This is also one of the reasons for the higher price of true rattan.
3? The cane can realize biodegradation, so the use of rattan is conducive to environmental protection, will not cause pollution to the environment.
4? The rattan is strong, light and tough, and easy to bend forming, and the effect of compression is good. And it is flexible and flexible; it has a strong sense of flexibility and can make a variety of shapes.
5? rattan has a strong ability to regenerate. It is a fast growing plant with a growth cycle of 5-7 years.

Disadvantages:
1? Rattan furniture is not suitable for long-term immersion or high temperature baking;
2? Use should be strictly from the weapon; moving the furniture should be underpinning the move, not pulling drag;
3? The furniture pendulum should be kept level, and it is easy to deform the furniture.
4? The small volume of garbage into the cracks in the rattan furniture is not easy to clean so long and easy to scale, so the need for active maintenance and maintenance.
5? The price of real rattan furniture is more expensive.

8. Conclusion:

The properties of rattan determine that rattan is destined to be a very popular use material. For the use of rattan furniture, as long as we do careful maintenance, rattan furniture is more durable than solid wood furniture, and rattan furniture is very light. And, with the development of planting technology, the extensive planting of rattan is also beneficial to the environment.

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