People’s attitudes, values, beliefs and behaviour are what shape the decisions they make every day in their lives. These can come from a number of factors, from the area that they live into the beliefs and values they were brought up to believe. Attitudes, values, beliefs and behaviour play a very important part in marketing and public relations campaigns as the point of these campaigns is to get people to think and do certain things. This could be a variety of things such as buying a certain product, watching a certain tv show or even visiting a certain place. In this essay, I will discuss two main theories that relate to public behaviour and their attitudes, values and beliefs in relation to a public campaign. The campaign I have chosen is the ‘Salute the Lionesses’ campaign set up by the Football Association that strived to get more people in the United Kingdom to watch the 2017 UEFA Women’s Euro tournament. The two theories I have chosen to use are the BVA (beliefs, values and attitudes) theory and the Theory of Planned Behaviour. Throughout the essay I will evaluate the campaign and analyse how they have tried to change the attitudes and beliefs of a group of people, and whether or not they were successful in their goals. I will look at the way they constructed the campaign, what they hoped to achieve and the result of the campaign when it stopped airing.
The ‘Salute the Lionesses’ campaign was created by Pitch PR company for the Football Association. The aim of the campaign overall was to generate more views on England’s women’s football UEFA Euro’s tournament that was set to start in the summer of 2017 as well as encouraging more girls and women to play the sport. This was a wide campaign that had many forms to reach a wide audience. The part of the campaign I will be analysing and relating my two theories to is the video campaign that aired on British television along with being uploaded to the video-sharing website YouTube and shared through different social media platforms. The video featured stars of the England women’s football team along with the members of the British girl band ‘Little Mix’. The video itself features women and girls playing and watching football along with the women’s football stars in action on the pitch. Throughout the video, the members of Little Mix are seen in England football tops singing their song ‘Salute’. This song is played in the background of the video throughout it. This campaign was played on television channels and shared on social media networks throughout the months leading up to the football tournament so it had a wide reach in terms of the public in the United Kingdom seeing it. This campaign sought to persuade more people to watch women’s football as they do with men’s football. Men’s football is extremely popular throughout the whole world but the attitude towards women’s football is drastically different in most places so this campaign had quite a big task to complete.
This campaign had a number of stakeholders (see Appendix A) all of different importance. As the point of the campaign was to get people to watch women’s football as much as they do men’s, the most important of these stakeholders were people who watch football. these are one of the key stakeholders as they have high interest in football and also have high power as the point of the campaign is to get these people to watch the women’s football matches. The second key player in the stakeholder map (See Appendix B) is the Football Associations. The FA is the main organisation that stands to gain from more people watching women’s football. As they run the men’s and women’s football throughout the world, they would gain support, popularity and money from people watching the women’s version of the sport. They also hold very high power. They are a very well-known brand not just within football fans, but with almost everyone around the world and this means they have to power to influence a large number of people into watching the football matches. The last of the key players in the stakeholder matrix is England’s women’s football team. This team have high interest as they stand to gain the most out of the campaign. If the campaign generates more views, the team will become more popular and therefore gain recognition and money. They also hold power as the better they play and the more likely people are to watch them. The stakeholders with the least interest and power are just people who watch television. This is because they do not have a high interest in football but they still watch tv and they have no real power to increase the popularity of women’s football as they are not interested in it. It is extremely important to keep the key players happy and satisfied. Without the key players being satisfied, the campaign will not achieve the intended outcome.
Behaviour and attitude change can be extremely difficult to achieve. For many people, their attitudes and behaviour towards something is built over time and can come from different aspects of their lives. The first theory is the beliefs, values and attitudes theory (Simons, 2011). This theory analyses the beliefs. Values and attitudes of the target audience for the campaign which in this case is people who watch football and enjoy the sport. The beliefs of the target audience are that football is an interesting sport to watch. They value the sport as many have a certain team they support and they value this as a worthwhile way to spend their time. The attitude that they have towards the sport are favourable. However, the aim of this campaign is to change the way they see women’s football and to influence them to watch it more. So, in this case, their beliefs, values and attitudes are directed at the men’s version of the sport, not the women’s. The beliefs of men’s football fans are that football is a good sport to watch however, the women’s version of the sport is not as women cannot play the sport as well as men can. This leads to them valuing men’s football over women’s football and this makes the attitudes towards women’s football unfavourable.
The way in which this campaign video went about trying to change the BVA of football fans was by showing the women’s England football team playing the sport throughout the video. This shows that the women can play the sport as well as men can. So, this helped to change the belief that women cannot play football as well as men can which in turn helped increase the value of the women’s version of the sport. However, I do not think that this had a massive impact on the attitudes towards it on its own. Another way they are trying to change the attitudes towards the version of football is by including the girl group ‘Little Mix’ in the video along with their song. The song ‘Salute’ was used as a backing track and this helped make people think of their patriotic sides. The point of using this song was to show people saluting the football team as it is the England team that is being advertised. In most cases, people tend to come together to celebrate and support sports teams that represent their countries. So, using Little Mix and their song means the beliefs of the supporters change to believing that the football team are representing their country which leads to people valuing this as they value the country and they are patriotic which them leads to their attitudes changing to a favourable one.
Another thing they included in the video were the famous members of the men’s football league. This shows that the men’s football teams are supporting the women’s teams and this shows football fans that if they are supporting it, so should the fans. The footballers are seen to be saluting the ‘lionesses’. This helps change the attitude towards the women’s league tournament as the target audience believe that these players are at the top of their profession and they value the opinions of these players. This makes their attitudes favourable towards the women’s team. It shows support from the popular men’s teams which is extremely important as they are both a part of the Football Association so they both need to show that they support each other and that they have a united front when it comes to the patriotic side of them representing their country in their leagues.
The video approaches the changing in behaviour and attitude with many different ways and attempts to use these to permanently change the opinions and views of the women’s football league in the eyes of the target audience who support and watch men’s football. These were strong attempts that related to each other in one way or another.
The second theory is the Theory of Planned Behaviour (Azjen, 1991). This theory shows that attitude towards behaviour, subject norms and perceived behavioural control shape the behaviour of people. There are three parts to this theory. These are attitude, the normative component and the perceived behaviour control. Attitude is the attitude towards a specific behaviour or act, the normative component is the belief of what other valued people expect you to do and the perceived behaviour control is the degree that someone can control the behaviour. These models then influence the intentions of a person which in turn, influences the behaviour that the person shows. This theory shows that the better the attitude towards an act along with more favourable subject norms and a more perceived behaviour control, make the intentions to perform the intentions greater. So, in the case of the ‘salute the lionesses’ campaign, the more favourable attitude there is towards football along with more people supporting women’s football and the fact that people have more control over their choice to watch the matches as they are televised, means that people are more likely to watch the matches. Therefore, if more people find it socially acceptable to be supporters of women’s football, other people who are not as big fans will still watch the matches because everyone else is.
This is why the advert shows current men’s England football team players as the fact that they are watching and saluting the ‘lionesses’ makes normal football supporters will find it more socially acceptable to watch the matches themselves. This will generate more views for the tournament which is the main goal for this advertisement. Also, this applies to why they had Little Mix be the face of the campaign by including them and their song in the advertisement. The ‘Salute’ song that plays throughout the video entices a sense of patriotism from people as saluting is normally done by soldiers who fight for their country. This is meant to make people think they are watching and supporting their country so it makes peoples attitudes favourable and makes us think it is socially acceptable to watch the England women’s football team. They also have full control over their choice to watch the tournament on TV. All of this put together makes it more likely that people who hold patriotism highly in their life will watch the football matches to support their country in something. So, this theory predicts what people will intend to do and what they will actually do when they see the advertisement. Obviously, this theory is not one hundred percent perfect as there can be obstacles that get in the way of the act they are intending to do, even if they have the best intentions. These things can be as simple as having to work or having a prior commitment when the matches are on. These two theories working alongside each other throughout the video will allow the PR and marketing teams to be confident in the fact that more people will watch and support the ‘lionesses’ when the tournament begins.
I believe this campaign was very good and achieved its goal of getting more people to watch the England women’s football team in action in the UEFA euro’s tournament. If there were any changes that I would make to this campaign, the first one would be to make it more patriotic. I think they could have played up more on the fact that people should be supporting their country not just in the men’s football but also in the women’s football. If I were to do it I would have incorporated the English flag into the advertisement. Even though the logo for the football team is seen throughout on the players and also on the members of Little Mix, they could have made more of a point and drawn more attention to the patriotism if they had included the English flag in the advert somewhere. For example, it could have been in the background somewhere, one of the players or one of the members of Little Mix could have been wearing it on them somewhere or holding it and they could have shown fans holding and waving it. Another thing they could have done was shown more of the men’s team and women’s team interacting. The video only shows the male players saluting. To show people that it is socially acceptable to support the women’s team, they could have had the female and male teams together in a shot with all of them saluting. These things would have had more impact on the audience and overall would have had more impact on the number of views the England women’s football teams matches got during the UEFA Euro’s tournament in the summer of 2017.