Sara Anthemius of Tralles and Isidorus of Miletus.

Sara Tolley Art History Church of Hagia Sophia The Church of Hagia Sophia is known as Holy Wisdom, sometimes built between 532-537 in Istanbul, Turkey by two different creators, Anthemius of Tralles and Isidorus of Miletus. The First Church of Hagia Sophia, damaged by a fire in 404 AD, it was a spacious colonnaded basilica filled with galleries and wooden roof. It represents a sizeable congregational basilica of the kind that was built all over the empire of Constantine after 313 AD and belongs to a period when the subsequent power and importance of Constantinople as a capital could hardly have anticipated (Magdalino Paul et al.). The primary Hagia Sophia was extraordinarily eaten up by flame in the Nika revolts on January fifteenth of 532 AD. It was supplanted and overlaid on Christmas Eve of 537 under the support of Justinian I. Until May 7th of 558, the dome roof collapsed during the process of repairing the damage from the events of earthquakes on December 14th of 557, so it was recreated entirely by Isidorus who was higher profile in construction in 562. Because of the advancement of Hagia Sophia had delivered an impressive work of design and show the necessary inventiveness of its period, the accomplishment very much perceived in depicting by the contemporary court essayist, Prokopios and it charged by Justinian I as the festival of his widespread support. Features the congregation as a superb working of the rule, even flattering ascribing a more considerable amount of the engineering skill to the sovereign as opposed to the two reported modelers(Magdalen Paul et al.). It was possible that it is a trace of continuity in architectural knowledge with the significant buildings of Imperial Rome as the time adapted to the needs of the Christian religion. During the Middle Ages, the aura that was made in Hagia Sophia could not be minimized, and the decoration was designed as much to amaze the visitor as to enhance the services of worship and the admiration of God that was praised by day and night. It received vast numbers of visitors and pilgrims, who could venerate the many Christian relics collected over the centuries and displayed all around the building (Magdalen Paul et al.).Pantheon Pantheon, the circular domed temple built on the Campus of Martius between 118 and 125 AD almost well-preserved that it is considered a most significant achievement in Roman architecture and one of the most famous buildings in the history. It was built by two separate individuals, Hadrian and M. Agrippa as a monument to honor Augustus and the Julio-Claudia family. It alluded as a temple that is committed to many gods (History of Rome, LIII.xxvii.2). The inside of the Pantheon, the worshipper, was attracted by the vast interior space and the hemispherical dome and shine on by a slanting shaft of light coming from the enormous oculus. It is composed of two architectural entities with a porch and a cylindrical drum covered by a dome, between these, there is a transitional rectangular structure that contains a pair of large niches flanking the bronze doors. The slots housed the statues of Augustus and Agrippa and provided a religious and political association with the original Pantheon (Fikret K. Yegul. 2016). Pantheon’s design and symbolism could reflect the complex even with the character of Hadrian himself. The centralized, domed model is unprecedented in a Roman temple, yet the porch is traditional. Again, although its structure is the culmination of an extended period of experimentation with concrete, the Pantheon was not a progressive building. Instead, its calm, trabeated inside, with various columnar screens and substantial nonstop cornices, can be viewed as adjusting to a conservative line of classicism (Fikret K. Yegul. 2016). The Pantheon’s unusual design may explain by Dio’s claims that dedicated to many gods (in addition to the imperial family) and that Hadrian even used it as a law court (LXIX.vii.1). Whether it was consequently intended to evoke the dome of heaven (LXIX.xxvii.2) or the universality and permanence of the Empire remain conjectural.Abbey Church of Ste.-Foy It was built in the eighth century in Conques by the monks that flee the Saracens in Spain. The original chapel was destroyed during the 11th century to create a larger church. It is also an abbey that it was part of a monastery where the monks lived, prayed, and worked. Upon a pilgrim’s arrival at Conques, they would head to the church to gain blessing before coming inside; they notice a vital message awaited them on the portal known as the “Last Judgment.” In the center of the scene, Christ would sit as a judge with his right hand pointing upwards to the saved while the left was gestures down as those could not spare. This scene served as a reminder to those entering the church about the joys of heaven and torments of hell. On the right of Christ are Mary, Peter, and founder of the monastery as well as attendants of other saints. Below these angels, there are blessed who have been saved by Christ and who will remain in paradise with him for eternity. Another side of the pediment, there is a row of angels who open graves of the dead as they rise from their tombs for their souls to be weighted, and will admit to heaven or hell. Inside Hell, there is a chaotic, disorderly scene with the devil on the throne as a judge who will determine the punishments that await those could not save due to the number of their sins. This portal was not only a warning for pilgrims but for the clergy who lived in Conquest as well. Hosios Loukas Monastery The Church of the Theotokos, oldest in the complex and only church to be built in the mainland Greece in the tenth century as it adjoins a larger cathedral church, Katholikon in the December of 1011. Hosios Loukas is the biggest of three religious communities surviving from the Middle Byzantine time frame in Greece as it differs from the Daphnion and New Moni in that it is committed to a single military holy person. St. Lukes’ prediction about the reconquest of Crete commended by the picture of Joshua on the outside mass of the Panagia church: Joshua was considered a model “warrior of the faith,” whose help was especially useful in the wars waged against the Arabs. The Katholikon contains the best-preserved complex of mosaics from the period of the Macedonian Renaissance. The complex remains incomplete due to the original image of Christ Pantocrator inside the dome is missing as are the figures of archangels. Several pieces of evidence proved the monastery was rumored all over Byzantium for its lavish decoration. In the spite, the Katholikon gave the most excellent impression available with the case of a church building interior in the first centuries after the end of Iconoclasm. There is a burial crypt beneath Katholikon with three distinct areas: central interior space includes nine groin-vaulted bays and sanctuary with a vaulted bay and an apse; three arched passages that is well known as bones vaults. It contains frescoes on the entryway, its vault, eight lunettes around the wall with depictions of Christ and forty medallion portraits of apostles, martyrs, and holy men. Eucharist likely celebrated the sanctuary of the crypt as part of the services of burial, a commemoration of revered religious figures, or ceremonies relating to the healing cult. St. Mark’s Cathedral  It was a building that is placed next to the Doge’s Palace in 828 when Venetian merchants stole relics of Mark the Evangelist from Alexandria and completed by 832. The church was burned in a rebellion in 976 with the populace locked Pietro IV Canadian inside to kill him, and restored in 978.  During the 13th century, the church function has changed from being the private chapel of the Doge to the “state church” with increased power for the procurators. It was the location for the large public ceremonies of the state, such as the installation and burials of Doges, though as space ran out and the demand for grander tombs increased, from the 15th century Santi Giovanni e, Paolo became the usual burial place. Venice was susceptible to oriental influences (Wolfgang Born, Vol. 19, No. 2 1944. p.208). The fluted and bulbous cupolas which cover the open lanterns of St. Mark’s recall similar arches which were used in Persia to cover small wooden pavilions. As it was illustrated by a miniature painted in Samarqand at the beginning of the fifteenth century and preserved in the Goloubew collection (Wolfgang Born, Vol. 19, No. 2 1944. p.208). Structures of this kind served as models for the lanterns of St. Mark’s (Wolfgang Born, Vol. 19, No. 2 1944. p.208). SourcesOxford Art OnlineC. Mango: Materials for the Study of the Mosaics of St. Sophia at Istanbul (Washington, DC, 1962) analytical study of the dossier of available drawings, mostly 19th century, of the known decorationR. L. Van Nice: St Sophia in Istanbul: An Architectural Survey, two vols (Washington, DC, 1965–86)T. F. Mathews: The Early Churches of Constantinople: Architecture and Liturgy (University Park, PA, 1971)C. Mango: The Art of the Byzantine Empire, 312–1453: Sources and Documents (Englewood Cliffs, NJ, 1972/R Toronto, Buffalo, and London, 1986)T. F. Mathews: The Byzantine Churches of Istanbul (University Park, PA, 1976) photo. recordG. Majeska: Russian Travelers to Constantinople in the Fourteenth and Fifteenth Centuries (Washington, DC, 1984)R. J. Mainstone: Hagia Sophia: Architecture, Structure, and Liturgy of Justinian’s Great Church (London, 1988)R. Cormack: The Byzantine Eye (London, 1989) documents mosaicsG. Fossati: Ayasofia, Constantinople as Recently Restored by Order of H. M. the Sultan Abdul Medjid (London, 1852)W. Emerson and R. L. Van Nice: ‘Hagia Sophia and the First Minaret Erected after the Conquest of Istanbul’, Amer. J. Archaeol., liv (1950), pp. 28–40M. Ahunbay and Z. Ahunbay: ‘Structural Influence of Hagia Sophia on Ottoman Mosque Architecture,’ Hagia Sophia: From the Age of Justinian to the Present, ed. R. Mark and A. Çakmak (Cambridge, 1992), pp. 179–94G. Necipo?lu: ‘The Life of an Imperial Monument: Hagia Sophia after Byzantium,’ “Hagia Sophia: From the Age of Justinian to the Present,” ed. R. Mark and A. Çakmak (Cambridge, 1992), pp. 195–225A. H. Polatkan and A. Ottoman: ‘The K?l?ç Ali Pa?a Mosque and Hagia Sophia: A Historicist Essay,’ 7 Centuries of Ottoman Architecture, a Supra-national Heritage, ed. N. Akin, A. Batur and S. Batur (Istanbul, 2000), pp. 72–7S. Richmond: ‘”Peculiarly the House of God”: Turkish Treatment and Perception of Hagia Sophia Church and Mosque,’ Al-?Usur al-Wusta, xv/2 (2003), pp. 25–30L. Beltrami: Il Pantheon (Milan, 1898)C. L. V. Meeks: ‘Pantheon Paradigm,’ J. Soc. Archit. Hist., vol.19 (1960), pp. 135–44H. Kähler: ‘The Pantheon of Sacral Art,’ Bucknell Rev., vol.15(2) (1967), pp. 41–8K. de Fine Licht: The Rotunda in Rome: A Study of Hadrian’s Pantheon (Copenhagen, 1968)W. L. MacDonald: The Pantheon: Design, Meaning, and Progeny (London and Cambridge, MA, 1976, rev. 2002)W. C. Loerke: ‘Georges Chédanne and the Pantheon: A Beaux-Arts Contribution to the History of Roman Architecture,’ Modulus (1983), pp. 41–55P. Watson: ‘Brunelleschi’s Cupola, a Great Hill of Earth, and the Pantheon,’ “Renaissance Studies in Honor of Craig Hugh Smyth,” ed. A. Morrogh and F. Gioffredi Superbi, vol.2 (Florence, 1985), pp. 523–32R. Sennett: Flesh and Stone. The Body and the City of Western Civilization (London and Boston 1994), pp. 102–6D. Moore: The Roman Pantheon: The Triumph of Concrete (Mangilao, 1995)F. Lucchini: Pantheon (Rome, 1996)M. Trachtenberg: ‘On Brunelleschi’s Choice: Speculations on Medieval Rome and the Origins of the Renaissance Architecture,’ Architectural Studies in Memory of Richard Krautheimer, ed. C. L. Striker (Mainz, 1996)E. Thomas: The Architectural History of the Pantheon in Rome from Agrippa to Septimius Severus via Hadrian (Lüneburg, 1997)G. Waddell: “Creating the Pantheon: Design, Materials, and Construction” (Rome, 2008)Hosios Loukas, Oxford Art OnlineAbbey Church of Step-Foy, Oxford Art OnlineSt. Mark’s Basilica, Oxford Art Online and JStor 9F. S. Kleiner: GARDNER’S ART THROUGH THE AGES, 15th Edition   

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