Transcriptome (Saito et al 2007; Boualem et al.,

analysis of other monoecious plants have been performed to identify genes
associated with sex determination. In Quercus
genes were identified for female flowering and CHALCONE
IN ANTHER DEHISCENCE1 (DAD1) and 4-COURAMATE–CoA LIGASE-LIKE 1 were found to be associated with pollen
development (Rocheta et al 2014). ENDO-BETA-1,3-1,4 GLUCANASE gene
possibly inhibits the development of male structure in females and defect in DAD1 showed
defects in anther dehiscence, pollen maturation, and flower opening
(Ishiguro et al., 2001). In Ricinus communis PDC
related genes (cysteine protease) identified for female development and its
expression level was increased at the peak of anther abortion (Lorrain et al., 2003; Wei et
al., 2013). 

In cucumber sex differentiation has been
studied extensively and is genetically controlled by F locus (for females) and
(ACS1 & ACS2), ETR2 and ERS genes
associated with ethylene biosynthesis and signaling
pathways were found to be involved in sex determination.  ACS1 & ACS2 promotes gynoecia development by inhibiting male
reproductive organs (Saito et al 2007; Boualem et al., 20089).  ETR2 and ERSI, an ethylene receptors accumulated in
gynoecia, thus promoting female development (Yamasaki et al 2001).  A MADS-box
protein ERAF-17 in cucumber induces female flowering. CTR1-like kinase protein
(CTR1 and CTR2), negative regulators of ethylene signaling promotes male flower
development by lowering ethylene accumulation, as males are sensitive for
ethylene. CmWIP1 gene in cucumber also promotes male flowers.
Transcriptome analysis identifies  ACS, CsIAA2, Asr1, CS-AUX1 and TLP  indicate that phytohormones and their
crosstalk might play a critical role in the sex determination. Second, the
regulation of some transcription factors, including EREBP-9, may also be
involved in this developmental process.

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ADHERENT POLLEN 3 (LAP3) and Nodulin MtN3 resulted in sterile pollen and their abortion in
female flowers in Vitis
vinifera I and rice 60. In Medicago
truncatula Nodulin, MtN3 (Xa1)
when suppressed resulted in small anthers and reduced fertility due to abortive
pollen 61.  In Pea (Pisum sativum L.), carpel senescence is associated
with high levels of lipoxygenase gene expression 62.  Pentatricopeptide repeat-containing genes can
restores cytoplasmic male sterility in rice and petuni 63, 65. These proteins
have also been reported in Jatropha where they are involved in differentiation
of stamen and carpel and in later stages they are active in embryo sac of
females. Still
there is a limited information on genetic cues for female flower transition and
sex determination in Jatropha. Also, the expression status of genes at three
floral buds (male, female and hermaphrodite) is still unknown and is important
to identify the possible targets for increasing the female flower ratio.


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